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Medicinal Plants Supplements

MR GINSENG
Medicinal herbs have been used for centuries to combat all kinds of diseases, even for those not yet be discovered any chance of cure, as in the case of some types of cancer that has so far been impossible to find a drug that stop and eliminate this terrible disease.

As we know there are many herbs that can help us with great effectiveness in the fight against serious diseases, many of these plants have been investigated by great scientists and their effectiveness is approved in most cases, although no one can say that with a of these alternative therapies are definitely cure any type of cancer, if you can prove that these herbal therapies to help improve the quality of life of patients with this disease, and better still will greatly relieving symptoms.

These therapies should be accompanied by conventional treatments, it should never be put aside medical treatment and begin therapy with natural medicine herbal, no way we recommend you do this, you could jeopardize your health and even your life recalls that can go together, traditional therapies and natural, you should always tell your doctor you want to take some infusions to have or not approval.

To calm nerves lemon balm, valerian or tila; slimming guarana, horsetail and green tea; sleeping passionflower ... and so endless remedies and cures based on natural herbs. Because the natural, organic products and the field again. Are trendy. In times of economic distress, snips and medicamentazos, you return to traditional brews. Those who prepared the grandmothers and saying that cured great evils and whose ingredients were easily before in all the houses. But the world of plants is not only in natural medicine. Throughout history, it has learned how to use herbs to flavor savory stews, flavored liqueurs, or retain and even dye clothes and many other benefits in everyday life.

In herbalism they Llansà know very well. They take one hundred years selling natural remedies in Barcelona Elisabets street. They say they have a very loyal clientele. People of all life in the neighborhood, but in recent times they have noticed that there is growing interest of young people for these plants that heal some ailments or everyday ailments, provided it is done continuously and consistently. "People ask us remedies for the nerves, liver, hypertension, cholesterol, laxatives ...", explained in this herbalist which this year celebrates 104 years in Ciutat Vella.

Enter this trade that three generations have brought forward is back to the past. The sweet smell permeates the small wood shop painted green and cream, where the jars in which herbs are stored fill the whole atmosphere. Francesca Ubach is the last link of a dynasty founded by his grandfather in 1907 and then inherited her mother. Their formulas are still valid and are the best kept secret herbalist.

"Fortunately, we left still make herbal mixtures, in other communities is forbidden," says her husband Richard, who works with her. Anormis-Irene in the Ciutat street herbalism, where for 72 years herbs are sold, have somewhat diversified their offer. In addition to medicinal plants, which make them reach France, they will also sell diet products and have now entered strongly preparations made pills herbal. Irene Perez, who replaced 12 years ago his uncle in front of the herbalist Anormis-Irene explains that, being in Ciutat Vella, also come many tourists. "People now have less time and patience to wait for the effects of herbs," Irene said, somewhat indignantly with the pace of life that lead some citizens.

In the Botanical Garden Medicinals Gombrèn d'Herbes, in Girona, years ago they organize conferences and lectures to teach people how to be ingested these plants. Conxita Cortina, member of the association that manages this small thematic green area, explains that it is not the same as taking a boiled chamomile, which loses vitamin C and causes vomiting, which infusionarla. "You have to heat and cover, and never reaches the boiling point. Failure to do so, the plant loses many of its properties," he warns.

The botanical garden is a small space of 300 square meters with more than 300 different herbs that grow without any order ornamental. "As if they were in the forest," refers Cortina, dedicated in his few free moments the association. All plants are labeled with their name and indicate what can be used. It may to September is open to the public all day and should not pay an entrance fee to visit. To approximate the world of herbs to the general population, they organize lectures and excursions. "In recent years we have noticed that people want to return to home remedies, but there is still ignorance".

This association years working in this field. In 1995 they decided to spread the benefits of medicinal plants through this garden, which is a small sample of what can be found in the forests of Girona. Keep the garden with the help of the 140 associate members, since in recent years have lost subsidies they received from the Administration. "The plants we have are from Girona, but also have a small space other alien vegetation," says Cortina.

MR GINSENG The interest in learning about the world of herbal medicine has led Collserola park managers to spend days walk through this natural space to teach novices which ones can be found there. Throughout these months, they have organized three outings, departing from Can Coll, in which about 150 people have known what plants can be found close to home, identify them and know what benefits they have. The tours are filled, and even many stakeholders could not attend for being full. Apart from these guided by certain areas of the natural park outings, it has also organized an exhibition produced by the Unnim Social Work on medicinal plants Catalunya.

The guide Esteve Padullés these itineraries is an agronomist who has focused his professional life in the world of medicinal plants. The groups, consisting of fifty people, know Padullés hand herbal medicines that are closer to home and its benefits. "There is certainly a growing interest in the ancient uses of plants, especially in urban areas," he explains.

However, Padullés warns that in Collserola only allowed to collect berries, asparagus and mushrooms for household use or consumption, non-commercial purposes. In the natural park you can be found three protected species such as yew, the ladanífera steppe and holly. In fact, they are fully protected plants are located in areas classified as areas of unique vegetation and special protection areas (Font Groga and Rierada).

"Fortunately, every day there are more nurseries who bet on these herbs and make it easier for us to take home. Plants, plus give us color and perfume in the kitchen, we care subtly." Thus, as an example of traditional Catalan beans, incorporating an excellent digestive as mint, which allows more easily digest this vegetable.

In this sense, Padullés explains that Collserola is very rich in this type of plant. Thyme, for example, is one of the best antibiotics, or calendula, an omnipresent herb, helps in all kinds of skin problems. "The list is endless," says Padullés, fun. In this sense, it recommends having a small home herbalist herbs that supplies are essential both in the kitchen and to solve some health problems.

MR GINSENG Herbal medicines have also won exhibition and school space. Thus, the Arqueològic of Tarragona Museu Nacional has hosted until last Sunday Paradisus shows. I Jardins Plantes medicinals of Tàrraco Orleans, which come from the old illustrations in these pages. The sample was due to a European program for cooperation and exchange of educational experiences between cities in Europe, in this case Tarragona and Orleans. The sample has insisted that "the proper use of medicinal plants requires a number of preconditions: first, the quality of the plant and its correct identification, then it must be collected at maturity, dried, transported and stored correctly". The most used plants are:

echinacea Green tea ginger The St. John's wort.

Scientific studies have shown that ginger helps maintain healthy intestinal flora, aids in digestion of dietary fats, and can calm and soothe the digestive tract

We recommend taking in inficiones prepared at home, also they are available in creams or ointments for topical use or in capsules or pills. Types of medicinal herbs recommended for cancer turmeric It is renowned for its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, is widely used to treat colon cancer and various types of polyps, also it has antioxidants that benefit the liver. echinacea

It's great to favor the autoimmune system, is used to prevent and treat colds, helps fight brain tumors because it helps control cell growth. wormwood

It is a powerful antifungal antimirobiano and it is used in patients with leukemia, recent studies have shown that wormwood has anticancer properties. Matricaria This plant is also a great help to control cell growth in patients with leukemia. barberry

The large family of these shrubs Barberry called have proved very powerful in regard to cancer treatment, especially in the ovaries. El Chaparro It is used in treatments to strengthen the inmonológico system; also it stops metastatic processes by reducing the size of tumors, has antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Remember…

As you would clarify, herbal remedies alone are not definitive curative effects, as this has not been demonstrated by any scientist in the world, so if we can say is that in combination with conventional treatments are of great helps to reduce and greatly improve the effects of any type of cancer.

A guide to herbal remedies Medicinal herbs (or herbal remedies) are plants used as medicine. People use them to help prevent or cure a disease. Used to relieve the symptoms, increase energy, relax or lose weight. Herbs are not regulated or tested as medicines. How can you know what you are taking and whether it is useful? This guide can help you choose and use herbs safely. Herbal medicines are not cures

You must be careful when using herbal medicines. These are a type of dietary supplement. They are not medicines. Here are some facts you should know about medicinal herbs: They are not regulated as drugs. No need to undergo rigorous testing before being sold. It may not work as advertised. Labels do not need approval. They could not show the correct quantity of an ingredient. Some herbal medicines may contain ingredients or contaminants not listed on the label. Natural does not mean safe Many people believe that using plants to treat a disease is safer than taking a medicine. People have been using plants in folk medicine for hundreds of years. Therefore it is easy to see the appeal. Although "natural" does not mean safe. Unless taken as directed, some herbs can interact with other medicines or be toxic in high doses. Also, they can cause side effects. These are some examples:

Kava is an herb used for anxiety, insomnia, menopausal symptoms and other discomforts. Some studies show it can work for anxiety. But kava can also cause severe liver damage. The FDA (Food and Drug Administration) has issued a warning against its use. The St. John's wort may work against mild to moderate depression. However, you can interact with birth control pills, antidepressants and other drugs. It can also cause side effects such as upset stomach and anxiety. Yohimbe bark is used to treat erectile dysfunction. The bark can cause hypertension, increased heart rate, anxiety and other side effects. You can interact with certain medicines for depression. Taking it in large doses or for too long can be dangerous. Of course, some herbs have been tested and work well for their intended purpose. Many are also very safe, but the word "natural" will not tell you which ones are safe and which are not. Choosing and using herbs safely

Some herbal remedies can make you feel better and help you stay healthy. But you need to be a smart consumer. Use these tips when choosing herbal remedies. In recent years, they have rediscovered the many benefits offered by medicinal plants. Some like quinácea, garlic and ginger, have become familiar and are used as home remedies, and the variety of products available without prescription has increased dramatically.

Currently, you can easily econtrar in grocery stores and pharmacies several hundred remedies, from arnica (Arnica montana) to oroval (Withania somnifera), and on the Internet there are thousands available.

Never before has there been so many opportunities to discover remedies safe and effective for use at home herbs. Whether to alleviate common health problems, to prevent disease or to enhance health such remedies, if used wisely, improve health and increase vitality. But while it is good to have choice, it also has its downside. Browse the aisles of a health food store food and see that there are rows and rows of products of different brands can be a bewildering experience. If, for example, we are seeking a remedy for nasal congestion or menstrual pain, What do we buy?

And although we know that we Elderflower (Sambucus nigra) for nasal congestion and Chinese peony (Paeonia lactiflora) for menstrual pain, there are still some doubts: How do we know that work? What is better prepared, tablets, tea or tincture? They're safe? Are they worth what you pay for them? Is it enough to a single product or a combination of remedies better? Will interactions with other medications?

The answers to these questions are not found in any book, too many, but HERBAL aims to provide basic information to answer them, to choose appropriate and safe remedies to make good use of them.

Unlike synthetic drugs, herbal remedies are grown in the fields and forests around the world. Therapeutic and curative activity is only one of the apectos of the splendid and generous relationship between the plant world and the animal world. Introduction

Diabetes means that the glucose or blood sugar, is too high. If you can not control diabetes with healthy eating and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The type of medicine you take depends on the type of diabetes you have, your schedule and your other health problems. In type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in the blood. If you have type 1 diabetes need to take insulin.

Type 2 diabetes, which is the most common, can begin when the body does not use insulin as it should. If your body can not maintain the necessary levels of insulin, you may need to take pills. In combination with proper diet and physical activity, diabetes pills help people with type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes to maintain proper glucose levels. There are several types of pills available. Each operates in a different way. Some people take two or three types of pills. Some take combination pills. These pills contain two types of diabetes medicine in one tablet. Some people take pills and insulin. MR GINSENG

Pay attention to the claims made about the product. How the product described? Is it a "miracle" pill "disappears" fat? Will it work faster than normal care? Is it a secret that your doctor and insurance companies do not want to know? Such statements are red flags. If something is too good to be true, it probably is not.

Remember that the "real life stories" are not scientific evidence. Many products are promoted with stories of real life. Even if the quote comes from a doctor, there is no evidence that someone else can have the same results.

Before testing a product, talk to your health care provider. Ask their opinion. Is the product safe? What are the odds that work? Are there risks? Are you interact with other medicines? You will interfere with your treatment?

Only buy products from companies that have a certification label as "USP Verified" (Verified by USP) or "ConsumerLab.com Approved Quality" (Quality approved by ConsumerLab.com). Companies with these certifications agree to test the purity and quality of its products. DO NOT give children herbal supplements or apply if you are over 65 years. Talk to your health care provider. DO NOT use herbal remedies without first talking to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medicine. DO NOT use if pregnant or nursing. DO NOT use if you have surgery. Always tell your health care provider about herbal remedies you use. They can affect the medicines you take, and the treatment it receives.

Taking Statins Send this page to a friend Print Email Bookmark / Share Statins are drugs that help lower the amount of cholesterol and other fats in the blood. They work by: Lowering LDL or bad. Raise HDL, or good, in the blood. Lower triglycerides, another type of blood fat.

Statins block the way the liver produces cholesterol. Cholesterol can stick to the walls of the arteries and narrowing them or block them. How do statins help?

The fact improve cholesterol levels can help protect you from heart disease, heart attack and stroke.

Your doctor will work with you to lower cholesterol improving your diet. If this is not effective, drugs to lower cholesterol may be the next step.

Statins are often the first drug treatment for high cholesterol. Both adults and teenagers can take statins when necessary. What statins are appropriate for you?

There are different trademarks statin, including generic forms and less expensive. For most people, any of the statin drugs work to lower cholesterol levels.

A statin drug may be prescribed along with other drugs. Combination tablets are also available. These include a statin medicine to control over another condition, such as hypertension. How statins are taken?

Take the medication as directed. The drug comes in tablet or capsule. Do not open the capsules, or break, or chew the tablets before taking the drug.

Statins are taken once a day. Some should be taken at night, but others can be taken at any time. They come in different doses, depending on how much you need to lower your cholesterol. Do not stop taking the medication without first talking to your doctor or nurse.

Read the label on the bottle carefully. Some brands must be taken with food. Others can be taken with or without food.

Keep all your medicines in a cool, dry place. Keep them where children can not reach.

You should follow a healthy diet while taking statins. This includes eating less fat in the diet. Other ways you can help your heart include:

Regular exercise Manage stress Give up smoking What are the risks?

Before you start taking statins, tell your doctor if: You are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breastfeeding. Pregnant and lactating mothers should not take statins. She has allergies. You are taking other medications. He has diabetes. It has liver disease. You should not take statins if you have acute or chronic liver disease.

Tell your doctor about all medications, supplements, vitamins and herbs. Some medicines may interact with statins. Be sure to tell your doctor before taking any new medication.

Nor should drink large amounts of grapefruit juice as it may increase the drug in their blood to dangerous levels.
MR GINSENG
Regular blood tests will help you and your doctor: To see how well the drug running. Monitor for side effects, such as liver problems.

Possible side effects Mild side effects may include: joint / muscle aches Diarrhea Sickness Constipation Dizziness Headache Stomach ache gases

Although rare, it is possible that more serious side effects occur. The doctor will check to see if there are signs. Talk to your doctor about the possible risks for: Liver damage serious muscle problems kidney damage Hyperglycemia or type 2 diabetes Loss of memory Confusion

When to call the doctor Tell your doctor immediately if you have: Muscle pain or tenderness or joint Weakness Fever dark urine Other new symptoms In my search path I had already visited, over the years, many continents and among these I lacked own Africa when, at the beginning of 2006 I presented an interesting occasion.

Thanks to a friend in Burkina Faso we can organize a trade directly with his country: Burkina Faso.

Passionate about Entomedicina (so-called medicine "alternative" or "unconventional"), and especially of Ethnobotany (I'm also interested professionally), I can obtain a request for raw material from one of the biggest companies herbal. The order is to buy and import approximately 5 tonnes of famous karkadé, Hibiscus sabdariffa, belonging to the family of malvaceae and 2 tonnes of another plant little known even in the sector herbal, the Combretum micranthum from quality purifying and anti-inflammatory properties for kidney and liver. Affront the trip without thinking twice in order to be able to establish direct relations with growers and, just arrived, the country presents itself as I had imagined. Nicola Messina: Marco Billi is the President of the Association and the creator of the database of Ethnobotany. Born in Florence on 13 June 1973. Appassionatosi from childhood to naturalistic subjects and the martial disciplines recognizes the affinity and closeness until reaching the combination with the philosophies and holistic doctrines. Since the early eighties practice martial arts, from 1997 to 2004 he taught Kung-fu and Taiji-quan at the association "Shangri-la" founded by him.

* In 1992 addresses a study trip to China, where it is introduced to the practice of medicine oriental, facing numerous courses for massage techniques and medicines so said "complementary".

Afterwards visit Nepal, Mexico, India, Indonesia and in 2001 performs a path-studio along the Rio of the Amazons. Here he meets the local populations and engages in a research on their symbolic music-rituals and on medicine shamanic, has been studying the peculiarities through convenient direct and indirect, rites and meditations.

The study on the field, deepened by a patient and meticulous observation, leads him to verify how, starting from the most primitive and simple ones sonorities, until reaching the polyphonic music more complex, you can obtain a beneficial action and therapeutic, by acting on the ball psycho-emotional with reflections that go to interest and involve the soma, contributing to a better response of the body by favoring a better immune response and a more rapid achievement of general welfare.

From the studies and observations made in the field it seemed obvious how agreements or individual frequencies, can intervene on the organism by modifying the biochemical responses, with both positive and negative effects.

In summary, if a sound contributes to generate a stimulation neuro-biochemistry, the agency will respond in "different" to stimuli of the environment where a different interaction with the environment can be likened to a changed relationship with reality.

From the moment that the intelligence is considerable the highest form of adaptation to the environment, you can also conclude that "listening" can be at the same time, a form of higher awareness." For a more thorough discussion of the issue please refer to the site staff, jarguna.com, of Marco Billi, in art Jarguna.

* inaugurated in 1998, the first seat of the Association Shangri-la, where he teaches Kung-Fu, Taiji-Quan, holistic reflexology.

* In 2000 he becomes the president and starts inside the new seat a small herbalist specialising in traditional curative European, Chinese (MTC) and India (Ayurveda).

* During the same period, thanks to the experience deriving from the deepening on the uses of the countless products, active principles, local customs and traditional decides to collect and catalog on computer support these experiences and these information so as not dispersing them and thus be able to make available through the creation of a database that, just finished, will be available online. In 2005, dissolves the association, in the optical to widen the activity and their own experiences.

* In 2006 begins to import directly from Burkina Faso, for the first time, medicinal plants, with a prevalence of the Hibiscus sabdariffa, better known as karkadé, today imported through the company "New Alkymie". In 2008 moves in Guatemala for new business contacts and there is interested in traditions local herbal, deciding to expand the database, thus transforming it into a true and proper "Encyclopedia Ethnobotany Digital".

There are currently in the development stage similar projects for Madagascar. Nicola Messina was born in Viareggio.

After the scientific maturity subscribes to the degree course in Natural Sciences at the University of Pisa, earning a Bachelor degree.

After some working parentheses in the business world and responsibility in the management of a laboratory in the food sector, he won a scholarship at the Institute of Biophysics of the C. No. R to Pisa, where it remains for almost three years. However, the cuts in research implemented by the government does not allow it to be renewed the contract, nullifying the results of the project.

The beginning of the state of unemployment coincides with a long period of travel-study, from Europe to the Central America, from Africa to Asia, which allows him to approach with great diligence to tropical ecosystems, seriously threatened by deforestation.

He decided to move for several months in Malaysian Borneo, where the managing body of the national parks grants a dwelling in different parts of the state, in exchange for support for development projects local ecotourist. The period spent in Borneo give him the opportunity to study carefully the local flora and fauna and to interact with the remote populations of the hinterland and the islands of the Sea of Sulawesi.

Nicola Messina has collaborated with scientific bimonthly "know" with "Missions Consolata", "The Company of Travellers", and he founded the www.geographyca.com, site in order to promote the study and defense of tropical biodiversity. Recently he collaborated with the magazine "Naturally Science".

Land by the mantle bright orange covered by golden velvet herbaceous plants dried. The capital Ouagadougou, is a typical town of these places: as landing you find yourself submerged by the taxi drivers, guides, representatives of hotels and simple curious, only desire steal some coins, but never so aggressive or intrusive.

A plain boundless and arid with trees and shrubs well distant between them, a species of Savannah but deprived of the presence of every wild animal typical of these areas. In part migrated elsewhere and, in part, killed by the man to be able to feed the fauna of the Burkina Faso seems definitively compromised.

Burkina Faso has the reputation of being the country economically poorest of Earth and if they understand why, only highlighting the 4 points of the crisis in this country: 1) Water resources: difficult every kind of cultivation, both for the scarcity of water courses both for the great drought due to very little precipitation. When these occur generate floods that literally wash the soil depriving it of the fertile substances.

2) industrial exploitation: there are no oilfields, extraction of minerals or precious stones. Here I would like to open a parenthesis perhaps too much staff: it seems that this absence of industrialization has allowed this charming people, despite the endemic poverty, to maintain a positive temperament and a great willingness to help, always ready to smile, where relationships are almost completely free of conflicts.

3) Burkina Faso no borders with the sea, therefore has no port cities that we know very well how important for the trade in import and export. I know exactly who to send the containers I take them by land up to the Ivory Coast or Ghana, considerably increasing the cost of transport.

4) Last but no less important is the tourist that in this nation seems a rarity, except those few that lingers for studying the traditional music. And if they understand why the landscape is decidedly unattractive, flat, without morphological conformations interesting, mountains or true deserts, total lack of large predators that recall the tourism of genre, with the exception of a reserve where survive small alligators with the belly full of hens, … note of color, because the guides show to the few tourists the mouth of the animal by flying small chickens in front of the nose of the

alternative names Fairy tales aside, I'm plants for over twenty years, initially by simple passionate then, after some years of experimentation, readings and exhibitions, this love for the exotic and unusual drove me to make the big leap: open a small nursery. In many years of research, also thanks to my travels and those of my friends in tropical resort and not, my collection has expanded considerably: today count myself many essences in my catalog, often rare and difficult to get. Some go very proud, as for some precious and rare Aristolochie, of which I have a collection very wide (which comprises the Aristolochia Arborea, rare in cultivation in Italy). Remarkable are also the collections of the genera Brugmansia, Plumerie, Clerodendron, Hoya, Passiflore, Ipomea and Heliconia .

However the experience in the way of the art for me was concluded in order to make place to The Naturopathy and to the knowledge of the plants and their curative properties. The last ten years of my life I have dedicated to the study of Holistic disciplines and of oriental philosophies.

I attended with enthusiasm the school of Naturopathy A.N.E.A., Prato, where I graduated. Later I received the specialization in Bach Flowers as BFRP at the Fondazione Bach (Bach Flower Registered Practitioner, registration number: ITP-2010-0127D) and specialisation in Shiatsu, at the Ohashi Institute , where i graduate. The study of oriental philosophies brought me to deepen the techniques of the meditations dynamics of Osho and to acquire the qualification to the teaching of the same as Meditation Leader, accredited to the Centers of Osho to Puna (India) and OSHO Multiversity Gautama, Italy.

Today I would like groups of meditation and personal growth, in addition to exercising the profession of Naturopathy and shiatsu practitioner, offering a simple yet highly effective for health and self-healing through the techniques of natural medicine.

Born in a small village near Nouna Tierakuy called in the region of Kossi 25-09-1979, is part of the Ethnic Buaba with its own language or better idiom Buamù said. At the age of 7 years moves from the uncles in Bobo-Dioulasso to begin and elementary schools during this period includes that the hand is a dowry increasingly lively and deepen in her. Often will be in contact with situations that will show its capacity. The great family to which it belongs is constituted by several elements of artists songwriters said Griot. In adolescence learns from her mother the art of weaving the hair that subsequently open a Boutique for cone precisely. After some years in Cote d'Ivoire returns in Burkina Faso and at the age of 22 years about starting the first concerts in Cote d'Ivories and Burkina Faso.

In 2004 starts to play concerts even outside of the African continent, thanks to his brother Yacouba Dembele frà also concerts in Italy. In 2007 starts a contract at a record company with the whole group of the family Dembele appointed "Djeli-ka", in the language of the Dioula means "the voice of the Griot", concluded in 2010.

Through the Record Company will address numberless concerts throughout the Italian territory, making known through music, words and dance the African culture based on ancient traditions, often hidden and misinterpreted to other peoples African extra. In 2006 meets Billi Marco where it begins a career path together in the production and export of Karkadé (called in West Africa Bissap) and other medicinal plants. Thanks to her you are established direct relations with the ethnic groups in the region of the Kossi Foune where is native, trying to bring a job the more possible freetrade, respecting their cultures. Dembele Foune is the main referent of the association to section Burkina Faso.

I collaborate with the Association Shangri-la for the realization of the Database Etno-Botanico for cataloging of plants, taking care of the embodiment of the part relating to natural medicine through the use of herbs, flowers of Bach, essential oils, oligoelements, crystals, Points/Meridians in MTC, diets and other still, starting from different search criteria such as the disorder, the pharmacodynamic action or the apparatus involved in the disease. This allows the operators of the wellbeing of the timely identification of the various approaches naturopatici available for preventing or resolving the problems of health both physical and emotional.

One of these plants to an analgesic or analgesic activity, which I think it is interesting to appoint, is called Fagara zanthoxyloyes or Zanthoxylum z. of the family of the Rutaceae, traditionally call in language Dioula Wò: The root is pulverized and applied on sore areas and can be applied on the gums to obtain an effect to this point anaesthetic so as to be able to extract the teeth by avoiding an excessive pain. The effects of the powder of this plant, are quite evident: Mass in minimum quantity in the mouth, after less than a minute, produces a sensation of acute frizzore "".

The Fagara zanthoxyloyes you can use in the decoction for combating the presence of gastric bacteria. Balanites aegyptiaca:

Living on the margins of the desert, practically on sandy soil or even in the presence of substrates of compacted clay such as cement. From the pressing of the seed is obtained a fixed oil with astringent properties, anti-inflammatory and resolutive for many skin problems.

The fleshy part of the fruit is sucked as a candy but it must make use with great moderation, villagers say that exaggerate, "fa go race to bath". The maximum quantity that i would recommend is 3 - 4 nuts. Moreover the bark of Balanites aegyptiaca: is also used to fight malaria.

MR GINSENG The shrub is also used as a windbreak to counteract the advance of the desert. Crotalaria retuse fabaceae small from the name that recalls the crotalo, since its fruit remains attached even after natural drying and, moved by the wind, produces a sound similar to the rattle of this snake. All the aerial parts of the plant is used in infusion to remove bad dreams in children. Jatropha gossyphyfolia

Small shrub of the family of the Euphorbiaceae, has small red flowers followed by the three-lobed fruitlets similar to castor bean but devoid of fluff spinosa. Even if the plants of this family are not widely used for medicinal purposes because of their latex irritating and poisonous, Jatropha gossyphyfolia is used, at least according to what I have been able to discover, only for issues of otitis, introducing in the ear a few drops of resin that is extracted through the incision of the branches.

The cousin largest, Jatropha curcas is used in the extraction of biodiesel. Karite Butyrospermum parkii

Shaft of medium/large size that can reach more than 15 meters, produces walnuts (like a wild chestnut), inside of which there is a fleshy part rich of waxs and fats. The extraction is a time consuming process and is not done by squeezing but for boiling; what is extracted is a heavy grease that remains in the solid state up to 30 / 35 degrees.

Few know that in these areas, the Shea Butter is the first source of vegetable fat: women use it to prepare many dishes, from the cous-cous to polenta mile, as well as for frying any type of dish. The less valuable is sold as a cosmetic product and curative. In the winter period, to endure the cold, is in use cospargersi karite and mothers knead their infants to defend them from powders which, insidiandosi in skin cause wounds that tend not to heal.

Behind the history of this extraordinary tree there is a culture and a tradition so great that deserves a Treaty in part. To promote, disseminate and protect the knowledge of all the ancient cultures that have as their aim to bind with respect relations with nature, disciplines psycho-physical-spiritual and they associate, including the protection of the environment.

Research ethnobotanical, information collection and cultivation of plants for medicinal use, food, textiles, Tintori, craft and all other uses including the folkloric beliefs. The cultivation is seen as a simple collection for the protection and the study in the seat. Realization of a database with a seed bank, located in botanical gardens created by the association in different countries.

These infrastructures will establish collaborative relationships with local institutes dedicated to the botany, as in the development of agriculture, forestry and energy. Encouraging the use of local medicines, disseminating information and conservation methods to indigenous peoples.

With these objectives the association intends to play action of promotion and provision of services for all tasks related to the above disciplines.

In particular, purely by way of example but not exclusively, the association may: the assets of the Association consists of the goods purchased in the conduct of its business and from those of acts of liberality of members and non-members. The association is •forbidden to distribute, even indirectly, profits or management surplus however called, as well as funds, reserves or capital during the life of the association itself, unless the destination or distribution thereof are imposed by law or are carried out in favor of Onlus which by law or statute or regulation are part of the same unitary and structure. The association has the obligation to use profits or management surplus for the realization of the institutional activities and those directly connected with them.

(a) promote and participate in activities to address coordination technical support,research, collaboration and advice in favor of private and public entities in the subjects of specific interest; the interest for the plants i was born from childhood, observing the work of my father in the garden. In the early years trying to cultivate any seedling was around the house or in the woods, so that there were always jars of pines, holm-oaks, cypresses and another in my corner of private garden.

It was later developed a passion for tropical plants and, once enrolled at the University and attending the Botanical Garden of Pisa, I discovered an important source of seeds through the Index Seminum that Botanical Gardens will exchange.

MR GINSENG
In this way I had the possibility to obtain many species of which I only knew the description in the books. There were many failures; despite this, in the time I managed to collect some hundreds of species of tropical and subtropical, discarding precious space in small hot greenhouse where my father cultivated orchids for trade. Having to return with his feet on the ground, I had to then decide to give my plants, especially to the Botanical Garden of Lucca, which in the meantime had started to attend. Many of these are still part of the collection of the Botanical Garden: among these the Torreya Nucifera, a rare conifer of Japan, Harpephyllum caffrum, a Anacardiacea of South Africa from edible fruits and the Agathis australis, another rare conifer Australian.

After graduation, preferring to have an autonomous work, I developed a design organization and realization gardens. My work is mainly done at private clients in the context of the provinces of Livorno and Pisa, with an international experience in Eritrea in 1999, when I collaborated in the realization of the garden of the Hotel Asmara Palace. Although for professional reasons i deal especially of plants of temperate climates, the interest for tropical plants came not less. For reasons of space and heating costs I have only a few copies, even if I delight to sow new species for friends or for the Orto Botanico di Lucca.

The passion for plants has brought me to visit many Botanical Gardens in Italy and abroad, among which I recall with pleasure Villa Hanbury in Ventimiglia, the Botanical Garden of Palermo, the Botanical Gardens of Zurich, Antibes and Paris, the famous Kew Gardens in London and the Jardin de Aclimatacion of La Orotava in Tenerife. In 2008, crowning a dream of many years, I visited the Madagascar, thus allowing to have a direct contact, albeit limited, with the extraordinary flora of this wonderful island.

(b) promote and manage cultural initiatives, and courses educational, debates, seminars, conferences, conventions in order to raise awareness and develop the awareness of the balls psycho physical - spiritual - of human existence.each assembly must be preserved the minutes drawn up by the Secretary of the Association (or in its absence, by a member nominated by the Assembly itself) and countersigned by the President of the sitting.

And the faculty of the President of the sitting, when it considers it appropriate to ask a notary, which in this case acts as secretary. Resolutions of an ordinary general meeting shall be valid if approved by at least 50% plus one of the votes cast by the present entitled. In the case of equality of votes, the assembly, both ordinary and extraordinary, must be immediately call to vote a second time; in the event of a new equality, the decision in question must be regarded as rejected.

The votes take place by a show of hands except those concerning persons, which must take place by secret ballot. The decisions taken in accordance with the Statute shall require all members even if absent, dissidents or abstained from the vote.

Has the desire to offer work opportunities to villages which have difficulty in daily life in order to create a good relationship of work: - Culture - Humanity. promote cultural exchanges , also with other countries and develop contacts and relationships, organizing occasions of study for members also through excursions and trips.

E) forming and spread on their own account or for account of a third party, Books, Guides Brochures specialist texts to periodic circulation and not, photographic exhibitions, audiovisual, movies. In respect of statutory objectives the association can endow you with all the tools deemed suitable to the achievement of its objectives, making all operations in securities and real estate and acquiring contributions from members, by third parties, by public and/or private bodies. In conclusion, there are so many plants and so countless uses that only with time, with a meticulous research and respectful of the populations that we are going to meet, we will be able to access the immense Wisdom of these peoples.

The knowledge of the plants is a knowledge that is indispensable for the survival of food, to the protection of health and for the maintenance of balance man-environment on which the culture of these populations rests and has its roots.

All this generates that profound bond, an indissoluble bond that we have with the vegetable world and nature all or, as I like to define it, our "parallel world" to which we are deeply united by bonds of total dependence. Would be to say that if the vegetable kingdom can truly survive and prosper without us, as it has done in the millions of years that preceded our emergence as a species, we humans, we cannot say or even hope to do likewise.

MR GINSENG - the potential impact of GM crop on the environment, taking account of the intended use (import, processing or cultivation).

Applications for authorization submitted to EFSA has been decreasing over time, permissions have been limited to about one tenth of the questions, while numerous questions were withdrawn by the proponents before being rejected.

Among the causes of the decline of the questions cannot be mentioned the long times and high costs that the acquisition of documentation for the process of approval requires. Interesting are the initiative of EFSA aims to allow the public access to the data used in the assessments, thus increasing the transparency of decisions, and the proposal to move the evaluation of GM plants from the job to the product.45

The evaluation carried out by an international committee, has judged the work of the Agency of high quality, professional and independent.46 Properties of varieties and properties of innovations

The patenting of biotechnology and its products has given rise to problems, has exacerbated the debate and has widened to the most different levels, including conventions and international treaties. If they recall some.

The farmer at the center of agriculture, the farmer servant of the multinationals.

The farmer is the owner of the traditional varieties that cultivates, which have been left as an inheritance from generations that preceded it; a few other things as cultivated plants reflect with equal intensity level of economic, social and cultural progress achieved by the population. The property is recognized by the Convention on Biological Diversity47 and by the international treaty on genetic resources for agriculture and food (ITPGRFA48) that, inter alia, recognizes the farmer the right to use, in its cultivations, the seed harvested in his field, even when it is a question of improved varieties whose seed has been purchased on the market a year or years before.

The thing is obviously not possible for the hybrids and it is not by chance that the multinationals concentrate their attention on the hybrid varieties.

But the farmer, big or small, is an entrepreneur and the return on investment - Time, Money, fatigue, risk - is his guide. For this he has replaced the species (who speaks more of colza and rape seed or millet and panic to feed livestock?) and has introduced other (about 60 years ago he knew the attinidia - kiwi fruit - that today it is considered traditional culture?), has replaced the variety (from 1926 to 1932 the cultivated fields with new varieties of wheat are passed by modest percentages over 80%), has replaced many traditional vines with other considered international now, has reintroduced crops disappeared, as spelt, also drawing from the seed market.

The progress of science and technology offers opportunities that the farmer exchange, adopts or rejects.

The seed of quality has been and is one of the factors of agricultural progress over the last hundred years and the commitment of other entrepreneurs - breeder and firm seed production - which provide seed of quality must also be paid, if anything it is a problem of fairness and recognition of the efforts of the farmer of the past to preserve the material of reproduction and propagation from which the varietal breeder obtains the genes for his work.44

For this ITPGRFA obliges the varietal breeder to recognize, even monetariamente, the contribution of the world of farmers.

In this context the discussion on preservation of biodiversity and in particular of types and ecotypes of which Italy is very rich. The insertion, with public technologies, of a gene that healthy a defect would continue to have access to that particular type without the defect. The traditional approach to insert the gene by recourse to the junction does not in fact allows to recover the previous type. Wrote a scientist years ago that the chances of recovering a type after a crossing are lower than the survival of one that fall into the Niagara Falls.

Difficulties arose also between the world of the varietal breeders and patents. While the Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) encourages the work of the breeder with patents of new varieties of plants, which however provide that a breeder may freely use the variety of another breeder to produce new, the patent system pushes for absolute monopoly49.

The problems are however evolving and while the first generation of GM crops was clearly intellectual property private multinational companies, increases, in different nations unfortunately not communities, the commitment of public funds or foundations and international agencies, in the development of new GM varieties.50,51.

In the light of the evolution of the situation in this regard can only clarify and settle the aspects more sensitive and controversial. Sensitivity of the public

The points indicated briefly are part of a wider range of topics on which has long been committed to the debate on the part of the public - as, for example, availability and prices of food commodities, especially after 2008, the wholesomeness of foods and the methods of production and processing, the power of multinationals not only biotechnology, but also chemical - for which it is not easy to discuss an aspect without considering the other. There is no doubt that the attitude of the public is contrary to GM crops, even if they begin to be glimpsed a distinction.52,53

When it was demonstrated the possibility of transferring segments of DNA from a body to another, even of distant species or from prokaryotes to eukaryotes54, also started the first disputes: there were those who wrote with enthusiasm of "bovine animals as big as elephants grazing in Val Padana" and who protested because "with genetics want to play to make God".

Adverse events, moreover completely unrelated to GM technology, you sovrapposero to debate, began the revolt against the "manipulators" food and was placed under accusation science "crazy" which struck at one of the most sensitive areas of the human being: the foods. It was not difficult for certain groups, create the enemy to demonise, supported also by those who had an interest to transform - not to produce - Foodstuffs also obtained elsewhere, promoting the product as free from GMOS, and who had an interest to continue the production of chemical compounds of which the PGM had less need.

Things are starting to change, even if so contradictory, witness of modest scientific preparation of the population. For example, the investigations conducted by the European Commission indicate that transgenic foods are in some way considered healthier than those non-GM - almost that they are different things; that the cisgenesi (transfer of genes of the same species) is more appreciated of trans genesis (transfer of genes from one species to another - although the method the same; that farmers should be encouraged to take advantage of biotechnology - almost that engineering molecular genetics is not a biotechnology; whereas the bio- economy is important in ensuring sufficient quantities of food and biomass. It is also interesting to note that the opinion of NGOS is more negative than the general public.

The opinion of farmers finally is that of the need to streamline the regulatory framework and to promote a better connection between the worlds agricultural, scientific and political.55, 56

Therefore it is important that the scientific world renders the educt the audience of the value of new technologies, but also that the debate on agricultural innovations with the participation of the public and that the modalities for involve are improved.57

Impact of European line on science and technology

The difficulties and attitudes indicated are decreasing in the EU and in Italy in particular, private and public investment in scientific research, weakening the European capacity to find solutions to its agriculture and to contribute to the global challenges58. Many research institutes are closing, others are restructuring to optimize the scarce resources placed at their disposal. Many researchers - and especially the Italian ones - are migrating outside the national borders and the EU,59 undermining the ability to extend the basic knowledge and to translate such knowledge into practical technologies, an aspect the latter more difficult than the same basic research.60

In the meantime, new techniques that widen the range of methods of varietal constitution and make possible interventions are more precise and more efficient are in an advanced stage of development. But it is not known if the variety so obtained, even if it will not contain foreign DNA will be classified GM or not: a not insignificant aspect for the implications regulatory and economic that the decision means61 A glance at the future

The main crops communities are subject to attacks of pathogens, which are contrasted with medical facilities. For example about 70 % of pesticides used in Europe serves to alleviate the damage caused by fungi of the genus Septoria on the production of wheat, but the rapid evolution of the pathogen has rendered ineffective many previous medical facilities and given the need to put a point of new. Not very different are the difficulties that the Phytophthora is determining in the production of potatoes, to mention the two crops are most common in Europe.62

The situation could be aggravated by climate change, on the existence of which no one doubts, even if on its entity opinions are divided.63.3 Climate change could also impose substantial modifications in agriculture with the need of new characters, new varieties together with new technologies such as the transformation in poly-annual species annual so far.

The availability of the population toward the bio-economy, as indicated above, could widen the interests to the production of pharmaceutical compounds and chemical industrial interest. The lack of resources and the lack of action could force the EU and Italy in it, to become a net importer of goods and technologies, while some countries in Asia and in other parts of the world, thanks to the increase in investment in basic and applied research in progress, could become a major supplier of technologies. GM crops are therefore only one aspect of the present situation and that which may arise in the future.

In the face of these challenges are to denounce certain inconsistencies, such as:

The prohibition of the cultivation of GM materials determines the need for imported foodstuffs, for the most part GM, that are used in Italy as food and feed. Among other things this need could determine a relaxation of the rules in the producer countries, ensure that they are produced foodstuffs less regulated and therefore render difficult the supply of healthy foodstuffs for Italy.

The reduction in investment in innovation and research on the one hand and the desire to take advantage of the bio-economy on the other hand,64 or a reduction in the use of medical facilities in agriculture on the one hand and the prohibition of one means more efficient, effective and economical for the protection of crops from the other. Conclusions

GM crops are spreading in the world at a pace never previously experienced by other technologies, bringing benefits in industrialised countries and in the developing world to both large and small farmers. There are no reliable scientific data documenting the danger of GM crops on the environment and to human and animal health. The transgenic biotechnology, by inserting a gene that repairing a defect, allows you to preserve the biodiversity of the agrarian bodies, which is particularly rich in Italy.

The changes introduced with the transgenic technology are easier to characterize and evaluate those introduced with traditional technologies or with other technologies. The risk assessment should always be carried out in comparison with other technologies such as provided by EU rules.

Italy does not allow the cultivation of GM plants, does not finances the establishment of GM crops national, indeed also prohibits research in the area; at the same time is a net importer of GM food aid of species essential for some sectors of the national economy, while Italian exports lose weight in the world market. This exclusion and not participation in research is causing delays in the development of other technologies.

Many countries are investing in the development of biological technologies applied to agriculture, making it independent of the multinationals and becoming indeed exporters of biotechnology.

It is important to reverse the current trend national, finance research, increase the production and productivity of agricultural resources, reduce external dependence and regain positions on the world market.

MR GINSENG Science and technology will guide always more innovations in the agricultural system: research is by deciphering the vital processes of vegetable organisms and animals and the application of the results to the primary sector, allowing a more clean and sustainable produce and the availability of foodstuffs healthier. The current legislation does not allow you to take part in these production events and scientific, underway in many parts of the world, and thus penalise capacity, production and spirit of initiative of farmers and of Italian Scientists.

It is currently in phase of realization of a botanical garden in Burkina Faso, garden where to arrange a seed bank: I also plan to make a restocking forestry to counter the advance of the desert. This great passion for the ethnobotany and plant biodiversity has prompted me to realize a database, soon consultable on-line, in the hope of creating together with all of you and thanks to the collaboration of the ADiPA, a large network of information on the topic.

Cataloguing of plants, research of traditional uses for curative purposes, food and other uses of native tribes. Realization of a Seed Bank and seed section for didactics, giving preference to those for medicinal use, food and endemic plants of microclimates, for the protection of endangered species and biodiversity.

You should also be careful to rain or irrigation provided in the vicinity of the maturation because, in the continuous presence of water, these plants tend to scraping along continuously not lowering the water content inside the bulbs or cloves.

To avoid this "drag" of vegetation, you work passing to bend the stalk at a level of 2 to 3 cm above the bulb in order to block the passage of blood through the blood (channels that allow the transfer of the lymph from the roots to the leaves and vice versa) and to give a signal to the plant in such a way that should proceed rapidly to "maturation" that corresponds with a rapid loss of water from the surface layers of the bulb. This drying-drying will allow the bulb to be preserved for a long time. Specifically it is recalled that the garlic and the onion of type "Gold" have a greater ability to withstand long periods of storage, followed by onions "purple" or type

"Tropea", while the white onions generally have poor aptitude to preservation for long periods.

The retention period can be further extended by placing the bulbs, after the collection, in refrigerators with temperatures close to 0 degrees for a period of some months.

In any case, it is strongly recommended to proceed to the collection by tearing the plant from the ground and leaving it to dry a few days in the sun directly in the field, by putting it into boxes in the shade only a few days after. Alternatively you can proceed to a total collection immediate from the field and then put the bulbs in the sun for a few days on the threshing floor of the house, always to ensure an adequate drying of the more superficial layers which will be those who will defend the bulb from attacks fungal during storage.

Is the grass the antagonist more fearsome for these plants since, not having the ability to compete for the use of light (the leaves of the onion practically does not provide shade and therefore do not obstruct the growth of weeds), grows rapidly, especially in the last vegetative phase, resulting in a reduction of the air flow at the level of the ground and thus a condition in which the fungal diseases occur with largest virulence.

In this sense it is good to keep well clean the plants from the grass through the continuous passages with hoes or sarchiatoi.

This must also be done to prevent the spread of pests and therefore a greater load of herbs in the succeeding crops. It recalls, however, that by intervening in the early stages of development of weeds machining is much less demanding and the results are very positive. In fact, as long as the weeds have few leaves and a root surface again and developing, just break the surface layers of the soil to expose the latter to solar rays and rapidly lead to desiccation these plants importune.

It is not necessary to fold (bring the ground to cover the bulb) as occurs for leeks because the color of the bulb is not dependent on a condition of subtraction of light (whitening) but is typical of the variety chosen. There are in fact many varieties of different color and shape and, above all, taste more or less "spicy" depending on the tastes of those who then uses.

The onion can be grown directly starting from the seed or from the bulb, depending on the type of product or the type of soil that we have.

The seed, can in fact be arranged in seed bed or on a blister container in November and then the young seedlings transplanted in the field between March and April, while the bulb can be affixed directly in the field in the month of October and until the first days of November, at a depth of a few centimeters while maintaining a distance between the plants of about 15 cm and between the rows of 50-80 cm, depending on the equipment that we will need to keep under control the grass.

Onions may be collected at different stages of development as a green onion (when the bulb is just beginning to swell), as fresh onion (when the bulb is reaching its maximum size and before that dry layers-coats the surface) and as onion couple (the only one that can be preserved for long periods).

MR GINSENG There are different techniques for their production in the sense that you can allocate separate plots for the different types of collection or as typically occurs in the areas of the onion of Tropea, it is sown a large amount of seedlings with a discrete density and then proceeds to the thinning gathering before the green onions, then the fresh onion, then the onion couple.

The parasites more common for this plant are the tripidi (insects many small and very mobile, just visible to the naked eye) that produce malformations leaves especially when the attack in the early stages of development. In some cases there are attacks of Moscow of onion, especially in periods of high humidity and in the early stages of the development of the plant. In these cases it is advisable to intervene with pyrethrum or oil Neem.

The disease which is most easily found on onions is the downy mildew, especially in wet seasons and very stuffy, you may check with products based on copper or intervening in prevention with reinforcing preparations with a basis of equisetum or propolis.

The garlic must be planted between the end of October and early November, starting from cloves which are obtained by removing the individual wedges from "head", with densities similar to the onion. Also the garlic may be collected and used in the different moments of vegetation as fresh garlic or garlic mature. There are different types with different levels of concentration of the classic aroma and fragrance and color or speckled with red-Rosaceae.

As the onion is subject to attacks of Thrips, while as regards the fungal diseases is located the downy mildew and the most formidable rust that involves a deterioration in the quality and a more marked reduction of total production.

Also here it is appropriate to intervene with products based on copper or fillers based equisetum or propolis. The increase loud of the price of oil and gas (which, burned in the thermoelectric power plants, produce electricity) has suggested to some that the solution to the energy needs of Italy could be nuclear energy. In reality this does not seem to be a good idea. Here are some reasons that I propose to your reflection:

Nuclear plants produce wastes that remain radioactive for tens of thousands of years. There are in the world 250,000 tonnes of radioactive waste and nobody, up to now, has found a satisfactory solution to this huge problem.

Nuclear power stations are not safe installations at 100%.

Among other things, an accident in a nuclear power station is not as an accident that occurs on a railway line or on the highway. In the event is a serious and painful, a train that deraglia involves in the disaster a few hundred people.

A nuclear accident (as happened in Japan and also at Chernobyl in Ukraine in 1986) can be dispersed into the environment a huge amount of radioactive materials that pollute the air, vegetation, water, animals and man even thousands of kilometers away. Causing Damage that are evident even after dozens and dozens of years.

With a part of the material "scrap" product from a nuclear power station (plutonium, for example) you can fabricate the atomic bombs, weapons more dangerous and inhuman built by humanity. In Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan in August 1945), two atomic bombs provoked in one fell swoop from 100 to 200,000 victims.

Without counting the hundreds of thousands of people who have died in subsequent years and that still today suffer from serious diseases caused by exposure to radiation.

In Action On one thing you certainly agree: before thinking of how to produce more electricity, we could try to decrease the energy consumed or wasted. For example:

In Action

Attempts to reduce the amount of food that is wasted in your family. You may start from the bread, asking to the mother or the father: How much bread consumes every day our family?

Sometimes advances of the bread?

In Madagascar, a man collects the bark from a tree of baobabs near the village of Andavadoaka. With the bark manufactures ropes, but on the island the plant also has a religious significance.

"On the island the custom to adore the shafts is based on the belief that the spirits of their ancestors live in forests and other natural forms considered peaceful,' explain Armand Randrianasolo and Alyse Kuhlman, participating in the project sacred trees of the Missouri Botanical Garden. For this is quite usual note at the foot of the baobab offerings as rum, honey, coins or sweets, or see the Malagasy pay homage to their ancestors by wrapping the trunks and branches with white linens and Rossi.

The shaft of the dance (Photograph by Landschaftsverband Westfalen-Lippe)

When attending elementary schools (several years ago), it did between boys a simple game of words. One of us raised this question a little absurd: "Those who are the five continents?".

The answer, equally absurd, was: "The four continents are three: Asia and Africa". We enjoyed, but this kind of nursery rhyme also served to remind us that as we taught the teacher, the continents are five: Europe, Africa, America, Asia and Oceania. Well, today it seems that these five you should add a sixth continent.

These are two huge islands, entirely formed from waste (especially plastic) thrown into the sea and grouped by ocean currents in the two huge heaps. The "sixth continent" is located near the Japan and Hawaii, has 2500 kilometers in diameter (more or less twice the length of Italy, from the Alps to Sicily and occupies a surface area as large as the territory of Canada. A new continent made of garbage. Also our. This horrible mixture not only harms marine animals, but it comes slowly up to us earthlings along the food chain that part from the molluscs and continues with fish, dolphins, turtles, birds, etc.

Multiannual commitment but satisfaction guaranteed The plant of asparagus and strawberry lasts several years in our garden and for this he needs care and attention that are different from the other plants Asparagus MR GINSENG With the arrival of the summer we are in the middle of the cycle of cultivation of the asparagus, even if it would be easier to think that this plant just give attention during the month of April, the month in which you collect the edible parts: shoots.

The asparagus is a perennial plant that, in a normal tillage, lasts between 10 and 15 years. The map produced from seed or the so-called "leg" (roots of a year with sprouts in Gem) should be planted in spring in soft soils and worked in depth, taking care to ensure a good amount of organic substance, giving preference to manure well ripe to be buried at a depth of approximately 40 cm above which spread a little 'of land on which to rest later above the map. As the vegetation develops and sprouts grow, must be covered the channel thus formed up to level off completely the ground.

In the first two years of cultivation (which become three if you part from plants) is absolutely not recommended collect shoots given that in the early years the plant produces a few. By elongated shoots, in fact, will leave the leaves that thanks to photosynthesis, will produce the nutrients that will feed and reinforce the roots which constitute the substances useful reserve to the production of shoots in subsequent years. Therefore, that is why it is recommended to collect only after at least three years in such a way as to allow a good and complete formation of a radical apparatus strong and capable of withstanding the production for a longer period.

The collection of the asparagus must not last for more than 40 days to allow the plant, even after the first years of scraping along to accumulate the substances for subsequent years.

The asparagus is a plant demanding from the nutritional point of view it is therefore recommended to make good the organic substance, rich of all nutrients necessary, through letamazioni, the contribution of corporate compost ripe or green fallow.

The asparagus is a plant also demanding from the point of view of water to which it is advisable before implantation, think of irrigation that can be made with the hose on the rows cultivated or by plowing under the same hose to about 20-30 cm depth at a distance of 20 cm from where you will be then placed the seedling.



The plants must be put on distant file at least 2.5 m and 50 cm approximately on the row. If they are planted on land healthy and managed with an adequate irrigation and contribution of the organic substance, are hardly attacked by parasites, especially if you use local varieties or old that if they do not produce as much as the new, certainly are much more resistant.

It is advisable to maintain always clean the rows of asparagus from weeds because they compete for absorption of nutrients and water, are often the vehicle of parasites and especially because limiting the circulation of the air.

In any case it is advisable to check, especially at times when there is little air circulation and a lot of moisture, the presence of diseases such as rust or similar, typical of the asparagus, and in that case intervene with products based on copper or propolis or products that exalt the natural defense mechanisms present in the plants themselves.

The insects are generally limited and controllable with products based on vegetable extracts.

The last annotation is referring to the type of asparagus that we want to obtain: white, green or violet. The white is obtained by accumulating previously to the emergency of the shoots a layer of 30-40 cm

of soil crushed well above the level from which peep sprouts in such a way that they develop without the presence of light and therefore without developing the chlorophyll, which would give the coloration green or violet. Obviously there are varieties more suited to green and varieties more suited to white but also types dual use, depends only on the taste of who you can collect them!

Strawberry Even the strawberries are plants which lasts for several years but their management is significantly different than that of the asparagus. First of all it should be pointed out that there are various types of strawberries: those that produce small fruits (which resemble the strawberries), those who produce throughout the season from April to October and those so-called "rifiorenti" fruiting in late spring and early autumn.

A plant of strawberries can last a few years but generally after the second year is replaced because of the strong productivity losses.

These plants, however, you can play for "stolon", i.e. a sort of branch accessory along which peep those that seem tufts of leaves with roots that can be detached from the mother plant and planted as new individual plants. When the plants are not put in flowerbeds with mulching in plastic sheet, it often happens that these new plants are affranchino on soil covering the entire surface of the available land and filling it with new plants of strawberry.

This is why it is important if you want to maintain a certain order, clean them during the productive season and before winter by eliminating all the stolons, deciding whether to throw them or use them to make new plants.

The plants of strawberry prefer soft soils and dry it is essential therefore plant the plants on the flowerbeds, deciding before implantation as contrast the development of weeds. It is always advisable to provide for the sheeting that can be made with plastic sheeting, biodegradable plastic, cellulose (paper) to be put on the ground before the transplant or with straw that goes quietly after transplantation.

It is preferable to cultivate strawberries under greenhouses or tunnel, this to avoid that take the rain during maturation, thing that involves two main problems: the dilution of the sugars (loss of taste of the fruit) and the easier the onset of fungal diseases.

The plants of strawberry are generally subject to attacks of fungal diseases such as pitting (appearance of roundish spots on the leaves) and botrytis (appearance of gray mold on fruits and on the stems of leaves). These can be used to deal with treatments even estimates on the basis of copper or, better, propolis which also facilitates a good pollination of flowers and a more homogeneous formation of fruits (that botanically in reality are false fruits, because the true fruit is the achenio that would be the semino yellow "clinging" on the chalice thickened!).

From the point of view of attacks "animals" are subject mainly to mites (ragnetto red and yellow) hardly visible to the naked eye but that form a dense grayish speckles and a dense network of microscopic cobwebs. Mites will take away with sulfur based products or vegetable extracts. Liquid landfills

Scientists have long warned that the temperatures rising, by dissolving the ice, will cause an increase of the level of the oceans and the consequent disappearance of many islands, starting from those of the South Pacific. The oceans are also becoming increasingly acids and corrode rocks and calcareous shells of various animal species (shells, corals, turtles, etc.). The seas are used as deposit of industrial waste, waste of all kinds and discharges of ships.

This uncivil habit has transformed the oceans in a huge dustbin. According to the scientists, more than a million seabirds and over 100,000 turtles die each year because of non-biodegradable wastes left in the sea.

It is certainly not the case with our readers. However, it is often true that many people, when discussing important issues such as the gradual heating of our planet, environmental pollution or depletion of natural resources will always tend to delegate to someone else the responsibilities of these phenomena.

In reality, we have declared a kind of war on planet Earth and its resources (air, soil, water, animals, plants). A war in which we are all involved. Also as actors. It is in fact important to be convinced that each one of us, adult or child, has responsibilities.

At the same time, each of us can do much if you (at least in some aspects) our way of living, to move, to have fun, shopping, eating becomes more respectful of the planet and its inhabitants and all life forms that populate it.

In short, what is called "lifestyle" (i.e. the set of all our daily actions: at home, at school, soccer field, with friends, cinema, etc.) can contribute to increase the welfare of all, or on the contrary, may affect the natural balance.

This is not to think of changes impossible. In many cases it will suffice to introduce in our life-style small positive habits to give a useful contribution to restore a climate of peace with the earth. Nobody is pulled back then!

In Action

Moved on foot or by bike (from home to school, up to the house of friends, etc.) more often that you can Take the stairs instead of taking the elevator

From one hand to parents or grandparents in cultivating the ortho or in caring for the flowers and plants on the terrace

Helps those who work in the kitchen to prepare a cake that you can eat for breakfast or as a snack

For your festicciole, do not use the dishes and glasses made of plastic, but only crockery recyclable and washable Contribute actively to the differentiated collection of waste



Talk with your teachers the possibility to perform the differentiated collection of paper in your school or at least in your class When you have to wash with hot water, make a short shower instead of a bath is extended into the tub

Collect and thrown in the rubbish bins the waste paper that is abandoned on the ground while walking in the gardens or in a park

Talk with your friend or your friend of the decisions you have taken and encourage them to do as you

Sustain the associations that, in your country or in your town, you occupy to protect and preserve the environment

Write to members

An effective actions to improve the environment is to communicate to the members and Senators (representatives of the Italian people elected in Parliament) their opinions and their requests. It is not difficult and does not cost anything. Go to the web site of the Chamber of deputies or to that of the Senate :

we find the name and email address of all our representatives. Search for those who have been elected in your area (they are the ones who should know better your needs) and send them your opinions and your proposals (and even your protests). In Action

It is evident that the "sixth continent" you will not be able to delete. Someone has said that it would be like trying to sift the sand of the Sahara desert: a work impossible. However, his presence constitutes for us a strong call to correct behavior in the production of waste and in their management.

When you make your expenditure, brought from home the plastic bags used the previous time and still in good condition.

Suggest to your parents to buy, when possible, bulk goods (i.e. not packaged and sold to weight. It is detergents, cereals (rice, oat flakes), legumes (beans, lentils). The bulk goods found in supermarkets more attentive to the environment and in specialist shops in organic food and natural.

Divide correctly waste (paper, glass, metal, moist, batteries, etc.) and throw it in the appropriate containers.

Never leave the waste for road: these too, sooner or later, would swell the "sixth continent".

It is called tanzlinde, tree of dance, the huge lime millennial located at Steinfurt in Germany, whose foliage even requires the support of a scaffold under which may take place dances and meetings of the whole community. Trees like this are pretty common in various European towns.

Fico Sacred, Thailand (Photograph by Natasha K, Getty Images)

June is the month that we catapult in the summer, the holiday season (hurrah!), but also solleone and of the increase in the consumption of water. That is irreplaceable for drinking, for refreshment, for washing, for cooking and eating.

As you already know, water is a commodity that is becoming increasingly rare and expensive. In fact, experts all over the world are agreed that the shortage of water could be one of the major problems in the future of humanity. Climate change does not make that worsen the problem.

According to the FAO (the United Nations organization that deals with food and agriculture), 2050 1800 millions of people living in countries or regions with serious water shortages. While two thirds of the world population could live in difficult conditions for the lack of water. We often hear people say that this is a huge problem you must occupy the rulers. That is certainly true. However, each of us can give a valuable contribution. How? Maybe starting to change some of our dietary habits.

Maybe you do not know that, for example, the production of a kilo of beef (from which you derive 4-5 steaks) requires much water much it serves to 4-5 persons for shower every day for an entire year (about 100,000 liters). The account is therefore soon made: if a family renunciation to eat meat even only one day per week, with this simple choice offers the possibility to wash every day for an entire year to those who might not otherwise might make for lack of water. We might think, what do you think?

The water in the flesh Meat production requires an enormous amount of water. The irrigation of the crops for the production of feed needed for feeding animals requires approximately 8 % of all the water used in the world. We should also not forget that serves other water to give drink to the animal throughout its life. Add also the water used to operate the breeding (for cleaning operations, for example). In addition, intensive livestock farms easily cause major problems of water pollution.

The major pollutants are in fact the faeces of the animals. Finally, put it in the account of pollution also fertilisers and pesticides used in the cultivation of feed that end up easily in the rivers and lakes. How ever, to a thorough examination, a steak "contains" much more water than you may think.

In Action As an alternative to the usual steak (but also to the canned meat, salami and ham) what you can eat? Only salad, would say. Of course it is not true. Spaghetti with tomato sauce, for example, are a vegetarian dish. As well as the pasta and beans.

Or the rissoles of chick peas. But there are still an infinite number of dishes prepared without the use of the meat, tasty and that can satisfy all our nutritional needs. There are also cooks experts, able to prepare meals overtime without the use of any food of animal origin. In this magazine regularly find an infinity of tasty vegetarian recipes. Good appetite!

A sculpture of the Buddha in sandstone enveloped by the roots of a religious Ficus, or sacred Fico, to the monastery of Ayutthaya, in Thailand. It was precisely a Ficus religious, in the current India, the tree under which, 2,600 years ago, sat Siddhartha up to achieve enlightenment and become a Buddha. This tree in fact is often selected to represent the Buddha in art and literature.

The Holy Thorn of Glastonbury, England (Photograph by James Osmond)

The plants of the Forest

The forest is an ecosystem consisting of a large number of species including some (the forest species) that qualify it from a point of view fisionomico and forestry.

Bosco The biotic component is characterized by the presence of plants, animals and man that, over time, has imposed itself as a disturbance factor since the has subjected to intense forms of exploitation. A time met the needs of wood for the fire, provided the timber, fruiting plants for the supply, the fallen leaves for litter, the acorns for animal nutrition.

Now you also come across fruit trees: nespoli, sorbs, figs, thorns, almond trees, vines and olives and still traces of terraces, paths and abandoned dwellings, invaded by a disordered spontaneous vegetation. From this mantle, in general and from its plants in particular come information and news related to other cultural horizons, to other ways of feeling and the need to merge it with other cultural horizons, that here merge into one large unit. For this, the Bosco seen from a botanist is different from the woods of the Poet, as it is different from that of the ecologist, scholar of philosopher, the hunter, del Viandante dell'Eremita, of the brigand.

The current reality, has very little of "natural", while maintaining an aura of mystery and the deepest roots of the peasant soul; however it can be an opportunity to get closer to the great archive of labors, of subordination, experiences and wisdom, ways to say, customs, of instruments invented, cultures that had to respond to the needs of its inhabitant.

The hawthorn Glastonbury - also said the Holy Thorn - was born according to legend from the stick of Joseph of Arimathea who planted in this area of southern England to its landing from the ship with which brought the Holy Grail from the Holy Land. But in 2010, in a single night the tree was destroyed in an act of vandalism. Today there remains only the trunk. In the course of the centuries the Hawthorn was replicated several times by cuttings; then, when the plant was knocked down for the first time during the English Civil War, its clone was replanted in place of the original. The partcolarità of this plant is that blooms twice a year around Easter and at Christmas. All the winters a twig of hawthorn finishes at the home of British Royal.

The Lampstand, California (Photograph of Transcendental Graphics, Getty Images)

A study published in Nature Plants attests the use of ceramics for the preparation of vegetables in the Sahara 10,000 years ago

In the Sahara, over 10,000 years ago, binders experts cuocevano cereals and wild fruits, aquatic plants and other plants with the aid of vases, exploiting the resources offered by the savannah, a rich vegetation then present in what today is the desert of the world s largest. This is dealt with in an article published online this week in Nature Plants and coordinated by the Wisdom of Rome in collaboration with the University of Bristol (UK).

It is believed that the ceramicwas invented at least twice in the course of our cultural history: first in east Asia, over 18,000 years ago, and more recently in North Africa, about 12,000 years ago. Although there is evidence that these vessels were used for working animal products such as milk, untiltoday their role in the preparation of plants had remained unknown.

Savino di Lernia, director of the Archaeological Mission in the Sahara at the La Sapienza University of Rome, has coordinated with Anna Maria Mercuri archeobotanica, of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, together with Richard Evershed and Julie Dunne (University of Bristol) studied 110 fragments of ceramic material from the shelter under the rock of Takarkori and from the cave of Uan Afuda. These two archaeological sites are located in the region of the Fezzan in Libya, the mountains of the Tadrart Acacus, already known and UNESCO heritage for the magnificence of rock art in the fascinating scenery of the central Sahara.

Thanks to the extraordinary preservation of these materials, it has been possible to perform isotopic analyzes and chemical on the oily residues that have been trapped for millennia in ceramics brought to light by the archaeologists of the Mission of wisdom. Researchers from Bristol have thus demonstrated that over half of the vessels studied was used expressly for the cooking of the plants. We knew that fruits, seeds, roots and stems of useful species were collected in these sites for many purposes, as food to the manufacture of baskets, and we knew that this territory could support the growth of a luxuriant vegetation very similar to a Savannah today, with wetlands around the lakes.

What we did not know yet and that today there is surprising to discover that the plants, after having been collected, could be cooked inside containers and that this practice should be maintained unchanged for millennia. The tradition was the consumption of preparations with a basis of sun plants, for example whole immersed to boil, or mixed with food of animal origin. The comparison between chemical data, archeobotanici etnobotanici and has permission to circumscribe the wild cereals, the Cyperaceae and aquatic plants, the latter really given unexpected, more frequently cooked in the containers.

The authors have shown that the use of these vessels above over 5000 years the domestication of plants and agriculture note in the region.

The processing techniques of the plants revealed by these archeological findings must have been crucial to the survival of hunter-gatherers who, during the initial Holocene, they based their diet on plant resources spontaneous and available in a Sahara with grasslands that tingevano green landscape.

The first gatherers, who perhaps have introduced into the area the practice of the cooking of foods just to eat the plants have thus had the opportunity to improve nutrition and health of their groups. Already in 2012, the study of microscopic residues of organic substance preserved in fragments of vases of Takarkori had returned the first direct evidence of the use and processing of milk vaccine ('daiyring') at the community of farmers that around 7000 years ago began to inhabit these mountains (Nature, 21-06-2012).

The new study published by Nature Plants reveal that the processing of the plants with the use of containers for bollirle and prepare food and beverages, precedes by at least three thousand years the documented practices of the processing of milk.

The search test once more the central role of the plants in the life and culture of the populations of the desert, a role which echo comes up to our days thanks to the perfect state of preservation of plants accumulated in these shields center-saharan. The archaeological sites of the desert there have returned an evidence archeobotanica extraordinary. The plants of Takarkori, in a perfect state of conservation mummified, the prestigious journal Nature Plants has a page dedicated to photographs.

In this image of the Thirties a car crosses the so-called Chandelier Tree, the tree candlestick, in the underwood Park in California. This sequoia high almost 100 meters was excavated during the early days of the machines to petrol. Today in North America remains only about 5 % of the original forests of the Sequoias.

Eucalyptus, Australia (Photograph by Nick Rains, Corbis)

The morning mist cloaked an ancient eucalyptus in the Australian State of Victoria. There are hundreds of species of eucalyptus, and almost all are native of the island conntinente. Eucalyptus regnans, or Australian Eucalyptus, is one of the flowering plants highest in the world, second only to the Californian sequioie. These plants, which have proved to be of crucial importance to the aborigines both for the settlers, provide an oil used in some rituals to clean up the air from negative energies, while for the koala their leaves are the main source of food.

Cypress Solitaire, California (Photograph by Michele Falzone, Getty Images)

The Lone Cypress, il Cipresso Solitaire on the coast near Monterey in California, is one of the shafts is the most photographed in the world. You know that this is a ancient plant, but its age has not yet been determined with accuracy. This shaft can live up to 400 years, but the exposure to the weather could make it look older than what it is.

The Oak of Abraham (Photograph by Michael Maslan Historic Photographs, Corbis)

The end of summer, starts the time of berries. And berries, in our hedges, there are all colors: brown, amber, Violet, red.

They are all a little tantalizing, even if, yielding to each lure, you might have some surprise because some would be stinging, some other poisonous. Between the red berries, there are also those produced from cornel, a plant that many are able to identify, although not all were posed the question as to whether the beautiful red berries, which hang from the branch with a short stalk, can serve to something else beyond that to give a note of vibrant color between the foliage from various shades and the branches of beautiful shape. Dark red is also the pulp inside, which encloses one or two hard seeds, and that the botany popular believes, to complete maturation, one of the best wild fruits, excellent natural, good also cooked, past and with the addition of honey, or salted as the olives or used to produce beverages and liqueurs.

The Cornel, Cornus mas, for scholars of botany, sometimes is a shaft but not large in size, even if the scientific treaties relate that can reach 10 m of height. So large, from these parts, it will be difficult to find, so much so that the plant usually lives in the old hedges or more among coppice Euganei. The trunk is often twisted, cortex bruno-yellowish, young branches, and rights and green with shades rossiccie, on the side where the insolation is more intense.

The leaves, ovoid and sharpened, are crossed by raised ribs that converge in the tip. The fruits are not to taste when are immature because allappano worse of khaki acerbi. Those red ripe and were one of the authentic delicacies "poor", abandoned with the spread of the cultivars, so easy (and expensive) to buy. With their ancient remain nostalgia, so much so that just in these times, someone tries to obtain variety of cornel sweeter and more large. Who knows if it will be equal to the wild type, it prefers limestone soils, exposed to the sun and lives up beyond the 1200 meters?

The local ethnobotany recalls that Le Corniole had to be collected with delicacy, without make things worse or crash the branches and that, plots in infusion in the grappa, one obtains a flavored spirits which may recall the Slovenian Slivovitza. In Faedo (1972) The soft branches were chewed, for the hygiene of the teeth; in case of dysentery and fevers, we used to eat fresh fruit or their jam. To Boccon, an infusion or decoction of fresh fruits, sweetened with honey, taken orally, was considered a valid quotes tonic astringent and febrifugal. In Valsanzibio, from seeds was extracted an oil used for lamps and also as an oil to fry. At Arquã Petrarca, young branches for their flexibility were used for the construction of the baskets.

The recipe of the sec. d. C., recommended to treat our berries as if they were the olives to be put in brine, storing them subsequently in vinegar and mosto cotto. A long job and the pulp, which remains, is really little thing. Better a sauce made from the pulp and suited to accompany a roast pork and temper, in digestion, the fat of meat brown. "Te cables the bone to the cornole since that te impinissi 'na scuela from latte. Te cusini pulp and pelesina that the ga around Pian Pianel in little water and a scugliero de aseo since that te fè 'na paparea molegata. Passes tuto par 'na canevassa neta, sonteghe 'na s-Cinta de honey and the na s-cianta de last de limon and 'na s-cianta de pevaro." (Rino, July 1953, Montericco, farmer).

A food that we must listen to the remembrance, knowing that we could never more to describe with words that have entrusted to a soft wire of memory.

Crumbs of archive

Cornel 2 Synonyms Cornus. Brunf.; Cornus mas Dod.; Cornus sativa, home if I.B.; Cornus mas vulgaris Cluf.; Cornus hortensis C.B..

The Spot "Est alterum genus Gallic shrubs, quod vocatur rumpotinum; id so wished arborem humilem frondosam nec. Where rei maxime videtur esse suitable populus; ea est arbori acernae similis. Quin etiam cornus et carpinus et ornus, nonnunquam et salix, plerisque in hoc ipsum disponitur."

(There is also another type of tree-lined, I know in the Galla, which is called rumpotino. Wants to low trees and leafy little. And it seems that the plant more suitable for this purpose is the opium which is similar to the maple. But also the cornel and hornbeam and, sometimes, the kiln and Willow are used by some.) (Colummella)

We produce in the world 40 million tonnes per year of electronic waste (e-waste in English). Electronic instruments (computers, cellphones, screens, televisions, printers, fax, etc.) which are thrown away every year could fill many trucks that, placed one behind the other, would make a row as long as half the diameter of Earth (about 6300 kilometers).

Have you ever wondered where they go mobile phones that we no longer use, their old computers, televisions routes and all other electronic instruments that become in short time exceeded and that nobody can (or want to) repair?

Exist in some African countries (Ghana) or in Asia (China and India) but also in some Member entered recently in the European Union real landfills where workers (almost always children) dismantled computers and televisions in search of precious metals content and that can be resold. The problem is that the metals electronic waste (lead, mercury, bromine, etc.) are toxic, while the job is done practically with bare hands and without any protection. In addition, acids used in this activity will contaminate the soil and water, while the plastic materials are burned to retrieve another metal or simply for cooking. Producing toxic fumes and carcinogenic.

A nice problem there is that say. Aggravated by the fact that the pace with which our instruments and electronic toys become "old" is always faster. We certainly need to learn to become more independent of the tips of the advertising reasoning with our head. And, when possible, not to throw the instruments still working, but put them in a circuit where they can still be reused (see box).

Box MR GINSENG China begins to worry about the environmental damage and human health caused by electronic waste. For this is trying to build a network of centers of recycling of electronic products, with a capacity to deal with at least one million and 200 thousand equipment. In Beijing, in 2010, were produced 150,000 tons of e-waste.

In Action Let us admit it: it is now difficult to make less of the portable computer and (perhaps) even of the console for games. The problem is that too often we apply also to these instruments to the criteria of the "fashion". If your mobile phone (which still receives and sends notifications in heading perfectly, that sends and receives SMS useful, that contains an efficient and immense directory of names and numbers) does not even photos or a short video or you do not know how to say (as in recent models) minimum temperature and maximum scheduled for today in almost all the cities of the world, is likely to be thrown in a drawer (or in the bin).

Does this seem reasonable? Also the computer that has now has some year, with a little bit of suitable maintenance, can in many cases be still very useful for associations, schools and volunteer groups, etc. in this regard, watch on the site the beautiful initiative of the workshop for the decrease in digital, which helps to prolong the life of the used computers and intends them free of charge for social purposes.

"Born in packages in the woods". (During)

"Piantasi with his seed, and even with the small plants with roots". (De Crescenzi).

Cocina "... you de cornie excellent vinegar, if first, that sien mature pestino, and mix with fortissimo vinegar, and given conservinsi bread, and when will need, mix with wine." (De Crescenzi)

Giovamenti Nocumenti / "inside". The fruits are effective remedio à all flows of the abdomen, imperòche compel to paro de le blows, ò de thorns wild. You conciano as olives, et fassi of lor pulp preserves as de the codogni, with sugar ò apples, which applies to the dysentery, et à corroborar the stomach.

Outside. The humore, that risuda from frondi, ò from the shoots that you brusciano giova anointed to impertigini. The oil that is hollow of the wood that pain artetici, et franciosi. The frondi, et the germinates consolidate his wounds large nor hard bodies." (during)

Among all the conifers of the juniper is the species whose Distribution Ghariyal Distribution embraces the entire northern hemisphere, extending from Europe to Asia, North America, at the extreme north to North Africa. The secret of such dissemination lies in the great capacity to adapt to different environments by enduring the cold more intense and longer periods of drought.

It is one of the shrubs that first come to form part of the vegetation of pastures, abandoned meadows, of arid uncultivated, of mountain slopes, rooted with a profound interweaving of roots, ramificandosi since the basis and developing in every direction ascending branches which confer a columnar shape. The leaves are green in color and glauco grooved at the top, are collected in sprigs of three, are sharpened, pungent, long about one centimeter.

Those that are improperly called "the berries of the juniper" or even the pampering, represent in the large group of plants, known as gymnosperms, a rarity. Rather than develop as the cones, i.e. become woody at maturity when they are ripe they become round, fleshy, are tinged with a bluish color and contain two half particularly rich in essential oil very fragrant. Domestic use in Vicenza and the Euganean Hills and suggest to crush with a fork and apply them as poultices to cure eczema, ulcers and wounds that are slow to heal.

MR GINSENG For their aroma are very used in cooking as a flavoring of stews and roast game. A herbalist a little mad of Low Veronese used to prepare a liquor in which he used to put in a liter of grappa, a handful of pampering mashed, half a liter of water, three or four ounces of sugar. After about ten days went all through a very white linen cloth and advised to drink a cup, but also sometimes two or three, hot to remove the annoying winter ailments because he said "Drink, must", and as confirmation of his council stated "The ordering even real doctors!".

Going back in time, the doctor of Sixtus V wrote: "Take fresh berries of juniper, you pestano and cooked in the water; then you squeeze in a bag, at the winepress, cola, puts you to fire again, until it becomes considerable as honey, stirring so that it does not burn in earthen vessel: is this the triaca of the Germans. Presane a spoon in the morning and in the evening it is worth admirably who suffers of stone, renella, pains colici, cycles delayed, tightness of the chest, dry cough, dropsy, etc." Castore Durante in his Herbario nuovo (XVI century) noted that the bathroom with a decoction of juniper wood up to the navel is worth admirably to gottosi. Cesalpino the praised against the calculations; Cato the Elder, to increase diuresis, recommended a wine in which they were infused the "fruits" of juniper.

Certainly it is a plant that is good. Its essence, formed by distillation is balsamic, tonic, antiseptic and antibattericida, effective as diuretic and stimulant of gastric secretion. The popular medicine the recommended especially for treating diseases of the respiratory tract and genitourinary. In addition to the kitchen and in the production of spirits and wines, the juniper induces toward the world of imagination that wants, according to a popular legend, which together with the holly, during the first world war has abandoned the woods to go to hide the stations of our soldiers on the Piave, on grappa, on the plateau of the seven municipalities.

An entirely different tone the pia legend that relates that always together with the holly would be blunted by the naked desert as thorny barrier to block the road to the soldiers of Herod who were to reach the Holy Family to flee to Egypt.

Then would be to think that these two plants have been made (and by whom?) between us to defend ourselves. It is worth then to keep them and remember how many times our peasants of low they burned the juniper, in rooms where they were reared the knights (silkworms) to remove, and not only in the sense propitiatory, witches, malocchi and parasites. And why not, rediscover the memory of that ointment which applied on burns and that foresaw that the fresh galbuli were first made to cook in olive oil, then added virgin wax d'api?

Crumbs of archive

Synonyms Juniperus. Matth.; Juniperus vulgaris fruticosa, C.B.; Juniperus minor. Fuch.; Juniperus humilis. Gesn.; Juniperus vulgaris baccis purpureis parvis. Ray..

The Spot "Born ne packages nor the maximum mountains in arid places". (During) Cocina "... its wood (...) is good (...) for its taste in the flesh, iv within roasted (...) its seed cooked with wine, and bee said wine and the fruit you eat. Ei its branches with the fruit, cooked in water, with wine, and put into vaselli, which feel musty, with wine, or with boiling water and turato the opening above and rimenati around, iv' within guazzati, admirably purgano the vaselli, and give their smell, and sapor laudabile, and good." (De Crescenzi)

Giovamenti Nocumenti / "inside". Bevonsi leaves, overo the juice them, ò the juice of the berries usefully contra the bites of vipers. The berries are useful to stomacho. Corroborate the brain, retains the view, strengthens all senses, dissolves the winds of the abdomen, help digestion...

Debbonsi seize these berries of September, debbonsi instil in wine with a little water life for two days: then above a cloth of silt seccarlo white in the sun, quaste you piglieranno à fasting, three, two or three times a week with a little bit of wine at night when you go to sleep if ne mastichino three other sometimes.

Outside. Facendi perfume with juniper is chasing away the snakes... The berries coated solve tumors, lessia made of ashes of juniper with wine heals the mange alquante bagnandosene times... The oil of the wood of the juniper dry well worth taking in the mouth of the dolor de teeth, dolor nerves of joints, Spasimo, paradisiacal." (during)

Historic Recipe "De iuganda Vinea. Haec peracta sequitur, ut ante diximus iam, adminiculandae iugandaeque vineae care, which stabiliendae melior est ridica palo, neque ea quaelibet; nam est peculiar fixed cuneis olea(g0), tum quercus et suber ac is here sunt similia robora. Tertium optinet locum pedamen teres, idque maxime probatur ex iunipiro, tum ex lauru et cupressu. " (Columella)

(How to give support and the yokes of the vineyard. Follows, as I have already said, the work to give support and yokes to the screw.

To make it more stable preferable son of poles large rather than of the posts, but must not be of any wood; the best ones are those of olive tree split by means of wedges; are then the oak, oak suberin and every other quality of oak; in third place are the round poles, especially those made of juniper, but also of Lauro and cypress). Historic Recipe

"Horns et pruna dress. Horns, quibus pro olivis utantur, item silvestria pruna pruna et adhuc onychina solid maturrima nec legend sunt, nec tamen raw nimium; deinde one die umbra siccanda; tum aequis partibus acetum sapam et vel defrutum misceatur et infundatur. Oportebit autem aliquid salis adicere; ne vermiculus aliudve animal innasci possit. Verum commodius servantur, you duae sapae partes cum vinegars a misceantur part". (Colummella)

(Conservation of cornole and prunes. Gather therefore Le Corniole, on we serve as olives, and so the wild plums and those color onyx, yet compact and not too ripe, but not too unripe. For a day you leave saccare shade then blend into equal parts of vinegar and cooked wine or of sapa and poured over. It will be good to add a little salt, because there are born inside the worms or some other small animal: But you keep better if you mix two parts of sapa with a vinegar)

Venerated for centuries, the oak of Abraham, in the Valley of Mamre, near Hebron in the West Bank (here in a photo of 1890 approximately) marks the place where it is said that the founding father of Israel was visited by the angels that the promised a son.

This oak of Mount Thabor could also have 5,000 years, and might be what remains of a forest that once covered the region. Legend has it that the plant will die before the arrival of the Antichrist. The main stem died in 1996, but two years after is ticked a branch that gives hope of a recovery.

The arc of the Sycamores, California (Photograph by Ellen Isaacs, Alamy)

Cashew nuts, plant and cultivation: information on the plant and on the cultivation of cashew nuts. Curiosity on nutritional properties and uses in the kitchen.

It says anacardio and not peanuts

First of all it is appropriate to specify that the singular cashew nuts is not "Peanuts" as many say, but anacardio. In fact I also until a short time ago I was calling this shaft (excelsum) with the name of peanuts but between d and or there is a beautiful the half!

Cashew nuts, Plant

The anacardio is an evergreen tree tropical that produces a fruit, the apple of anacardio while seed is what we consume and commonly called peanuts.

The plant of cashew nuts can grow up to 14 meters of height but very popular are the cultivation of anacardio nano (nano does say… the plant in this case grows up to 6 meters in height). The plant nana has proved to be more profitable because more productive and with a speed of maturation greater.

The tree is native to north-east of Brazil but it is now widely cultivated in different regions of the globe, especially Vietnam, Nigeria and India which are the largest producers of cashew nuts to the world.

Also talk about plant cashew nuts is improper: given the size it is a real fruit tree.

Presents a short truncated by the irregular shape. The leaves are arranged in a spiral and are characterized by a leathery texture, have an elliptical shape and may be long from 2 to 15 cm outlined by wide margins smooth. The wers are produced in corn cobs where each individual flower is small and pale, the flower migrates from a green start up to a dull red. It has five petals thin and tip.

Curiosity: the plant cashew nuts the world largest extends on a surface of 7.500 m 2 and is located in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, in Brazil.

Cashew plant Cashew apples and cashew nuts

The fruit of the tree Anacardio is a false fruit (even strawberries are a false fruit!). It is commonly called mela anacardio even if in Central America takes the name of Marañón. This fruit has a pulp very juicy and tasty.

The seed of the anacardio is what we consume alone or as an ingredient in different recipes. In commerce, alternatively to the peanut butter, it is very widespread butter cashew nuts. In countries where the plant of anacardio original is is very common cheese anacardio.

The anacardio does not consume only its seed but also the fruit. The so-called mela anacardio has a clear fleshed and a yellow skin. It is a sweet taste and can be used for the preparation of cakes, jams or liqueurs.

If you are wondering why the Mela anacardio has not yet been exported in our countries, the answer is simple: the peel of the apple of anacadio is very thin and hexyl, makes this not suitable the fruit to transport.

In Latin America are widespread drinks at the base of the apple pulp of anacardio: have a taste very refreshing and a tropical taste that resembles very vaguely to Mango. The drink is added, traditionally, green pepper crude and a few drops of citrus juice, generally grapefruit.

Cashew nuts, cultivation

The plant of anacardio fears the frost and not resistant to cold. The cashew nuts are grown in tropical countries even if the plant is managed to adapt to different climatic regions with latitudes 25 ° N and 25 ° S.

The graft is a technique that is widely used to improve adaptive capabilities of the shaft of anacardio, however is mainly used to increase the yield and productivity in commercial orchards. The world of the cultivation of cashew sees a general discontent, the reasons? Price fluctuations, poor working conditions and low wages for the local collection.

Cashew nuts, nutritional properties

The cashew nuts are notable for their taste tasty and especially for the nutritional properties. A portion of 100 grams of cashew brings 553 calories, 18.22 grams of proteins, 30,19 grams of carbohydrates and 43,85 g of fats. Between the micronutrients more abundant we remind the presence of copper, manganese, phosphorus and magnesium. Makes a decent amount of vitamin B6, vitamin K, iron, potassium and zinc.

Starting from the cashew nuts not only produces butter but also the oil of cashew nuts and his milk. For more information i invite you to read the article dedicated to the types of milk plant.

Tied together as these two sycamores, joined together to form an arc, the shafts of the Gilroy Gardens Theme Park in California were "modeled" to assume particular forms: an intervention that takes the name of "grafting".

Pine cones setolosi, California (Photograph by William James Warren, Science Faction/Corbis)

The pine cones setolosi as this photographed in eastern California are considered to be among the living organisms more ancient of the earth. It is believed that some have also reached the 5,000 years of age. Grow slowly and live in the alpine regions, arid and suction cups; for these characteristics are among the plants most threatened by global warming.

Il Castagno dei Cento Cavalli, Catania

Il Castagno dei Cento Cavalli is a chestnut tree plurimillenario, located in the Park of Etna and considered as the most famous and great d'Italia. Legend has it that a Queen (perhaps Joanna the Mad) with the following one hundred Knights and Dames was surprised by a storm during a hunting in the vicinity of the shaft and just below the branches found shelter along with all the large retinue.

Dissemination of information and the plants listed above. Raise awareness among native to the respect of the environment by preventing not to fall into the storyline of entrepreneurs without scruples and illegal, in which exploit territories without taking account of biodiversity and human respect. The association has the task of promoting the protection of the environment and of the plant habitats, promoting cultures that retain a genuine contact with that "parallel world" which is the vegetable kingdom. Develop workshops and courses for the young age, in order to passion the student and consapevolizzarlo toward a better balance between man and the environment. Provide or improve the employment opportunities for the inhabitants of the villages in order to create a good relationship between the criteria for subsistence, work, protection of culture, environmental resources and benefits for humanity. banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane 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banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane banane Many of these herbs help control mental stress of knowing that one is dying of cancer, generally with the use of alternative therapies is greatly improved health of the whole organism in general. Remember that it is a help to consider when to prevent and cure diseases it is we should not put aside or miss any recommendation, yes it needs to be sure where they come from and how healthy can be.

alligator. Herbivores seems to have been decimated by man and the great drought has done to migrate those few remaining in the territories most fertile, and only small groups of pachidermi cross the territory in search of grassy areas.

Yet in Burkina Faso there is so much fascinating to discover. Bobo-Dioulasso, located south of the capital, is the second largest city and most important of the nation, base camp where to stay and work, guest at the family of my friend and of which I am now an integral part.

In these last two years I have started a small business that i called R.E.W.A. (Remède Etnobotanic West Africa), taking up residence in the country and then, in part, I too am a little Burkina! Francesca Zucchelli Born in Bologna on 27-08-1961, at the age of 27 years I moved to Florence and then took up residence in Prato late eighties.

MR GINSENG
After you have finished the Liceo Scientifico in Bologna, I moved to Florence to study painting restoration at the Studio of restoration of the prof. Bazzini. After 2 years I returned to Bologna and are entry to work in the laboratory of restoration of O. Nonfarmale with headquarters in S. Lazzaro di Savena (BO). In these years I have had the opportunity to work with the pictorial restoration and conservation of important works of the great Italian artists from the most important museums of our territory which:

The canvases of the Carpaccio of the cycle of Sant'Orsola of Venice. "The Prayer in the garden" table painted Marco Basaiti. Some paintings by Paolo Veronese belonging to the cycle of the ceiling of the Palazzo Ducale in Venice (Room of the College). Sculptures of Niccolò dell'Arca, of the cycle of "compassion", of the Church of life in Bologna, as witnessed by the publication on the catalog "restorations in Bologna and Ferrara" edited by the Foundation Inter. Cesare Gnudi, 1986.

"Crucifixion" and "Madonna on the throne with Saints" of Ludovico Carracci. Pictorial Restoration of the painting by Guido Reni "Virgin in glory".

After a few years are returned to live in Tuscany, first in Florence and then to the meadow where I got married and where I live now with my daughters and my companion. The experience gained in the field of ancient art integrates the experience I had the opportunity to acquire in contemporary art since I worked as responsible for the Gallery of Modern and Contemporary Art "Open Art", with registered office in Prato.

In this context has developed skills that will esplicavano in the care and preparation of exhibitions with catalog and art exhibitions such as:

Inside the gallery I had the responsibility of the management of clients and the care of the Web environment of the gallery, the management and maintenance of the archive and the warehouse of works of art, care and control of publications and catalogs, gestivo also reports and press releases with magazines of the sector and not.

I participated as responsible for the gallery in the stand and relations with the public at the following trade fairs:

Of Genoese origins, born on 28-03-1951, professional nurse for choice, retire in 1991 because in sweet waiting for a girl. At the same time buys a rustic to restructure and thus begins to make, together with her husband, a detailed study for planting in the garden. This is the moment in which realizes what type of plants prefers,i.e. the tropical plants, difficult, if not almost impossible to adapt to the climate in Turin.

The passion for this type of plants is felt increasingly strong and begins his "career" by subscribing to the A.Of.P.A (Association for the diffusion of plants among amateurs), where acquires from immediately new notions, besides begin to trade in seeds and cuttings. So decided to try to collect only tropical plants, and is obliged to buy a small greenhouse to fit.

Always through the A.Of.P.A participates as "amateur" to the exhibition of Masino, in 1995, where he won the First Prize, consegnatole by a jury french, guest at the Exhibition. From here the opened the way for the creation of his small nursery "for collectors", as he likes to define herself, inaugurated in 1999.

Its main purpose, through the Nursery, is to introduce new plants and essences, their organoleptic characteristics and medicines, the use to which it can do. It has thus been able to combine her first profession, medicine, with a passion for the world tropical, in a single activity.

"Once upon a time there was a great seed, who came from distant lands, does not gave peace to remain positioned on an old dresser, in a dark corner together with a thousand rummage; as soon as he could, without being seen, rotolava down into the ground but then there, unhappy, moved more.Once, two, three, but then the mistress insospettì you and he understood that the dresser had a leg shorter, hung, and the seed rotolava down.

So one day, intenerita thought: "What must be unhappy, poverino, perhaps want to escape, reach the green meadow, the sun and who knows, become more beautiful, more high, rugged….".Thus, wandering the seas and mountains, finally found a precious and small book, on which you spoke of him, the great seed unhappy.

So it finally found a place in a large pot, germinated and here began his great adventure."

MR GINSENG Thus was born Tropicamente, my little great treasure. The days are long and tiring, with alarm at the dawn (5 - 5:30) When dogs and hens make their voices and songs melancholy without time of mosques diffuse from megaphones croaky at distances.

The time in this continent, is irrelevant and only those who have travelled to these places can understand it.

The flemmatica life and relaxd is pleasant and would do well to our western slow down a little our neurotic rhythms. Unfortunately it is not possible and requests require predefined times and narrow and becomes more complicated to arrange shipments.

And then wait that are comfortable in the collaborators, cultivators, freight forwarders, customs officers…. and coordinate everything. There are no public transport, only taxi drivers with rattoppate cars with the tins of sardines.

My means of transport is a single brand motor, practically without brakes and is the most widely used. In every alley of the city you will always find a multitude of mechanics that you improvise and seek a solution to postpone the complete destruction of the vehicles and almost always find it. Are of the magicians. The markets are places of attraction to which it is difficult to remain indifferent.

There is always something that can fascinate or simply involve, especially an impassioned of the vegetable world like me that at each stand, stops to sniff and ask the seller the name and the use of vegetables and medicinal plants.

We begin a little to examine the typical products ... An interesting plant is a legume round with three varieties of color (at least in Burkina Faso)

Red with yellow maculazioni, black with yellow maculazioni and one yellow all that, subsequently, i discovered called Vounzea subterranea or Vigna s., a bean that looks very much like to soya but bigger, by slightly bitter taste that reminds the CECE. In Mali, where do you think originating, is called just as the population i.e. Bambara. Interesting plant for the characteristic of this seed that grows underground as the peanut and that is why there is defined a subterranea. Other particular seed which is used in the power supply is a Mimosaceae marcostachya Mimosa, resembles a lentil but by taste totally different.

Would avoid to speak of the yam (Dioscorea yam) and Okra or as it is called in Burkina Faso Gombo (Hibiscus esculenthus), since they are plants widespread also in other tropical countries.

Mainly for the power supply, it uses a variety of millet, Panicum miliaceum, and sorghum Sorghum sp. These latter are, as in good part of zones semi-desertic African, the first livelihood: often the morning women crush with large mortars of wood these small seeds for ricavarci a polenta insipid but that feel great energy value. I have personally seen eating for days always and only mile with a sauce of vegetables not well identified, even if I think both Gombo or Okra Hibiscus Esculentus (given the large amount of mucilage that produce) and withstand work very tiring especially at temperatures that can discourage anyone.

Surely the daily milling allows the product is not deteriorate due to parasites and to assimilate to the maximum the nutritional values.



In villages outsi1de the big cities frequently are people, especially women, with large Gozzi. The lack of resources, the distance from the sea and perhaps even a certain food culture does not allow to introduce mineral salts sufficiently, particularly iodine, indispensable for the activation of the thyroid for optimization metabolism.

Nouna: The city about 150 km to the north-west of the capital, one of the many areas where it is cultivated the Karkadé. It is in this area that I have established relationships with local farmers. Currently, given that my business is expanding, body a territory of about 30 small villages where to purchase the product with predetermined agreements. This year we have been able to export 27 tonnes of dry product. The karkadé, called in the West Africa Bissap, has historically been imported from Central America in Egypt and subsequently spread throughout the Horn of Africa "thanks" also to the former Italian colonies, and has always been regarded as refreshing and invigorating.



The origins of this plant, however, are still uncertain and another hypothesis is that it was introduced in the period of slavery.

The African people uses the flower more as a medicinal product that as a simple drink and eat the leaves cooked and mixed in sauces for rice, millet or sorghum.

There is also a variety that produces a white flower which is used exclusively in power: in effects after being rehydrated is appreciable on many dishes, especially on fish, producing an acidulous sauce similar to the lemon, much appreciated by the Chinese. The flower of the red variety is decoction in great concentration producing, accordingly, a color similar to that of a red wine. This color, which recalls the blood is used just for …

"Nourish the blood" and reinforce all the circulatory system.

MR GINSENG At first impact may seem a improper association but the scientific studies have confirmed that the cup of the flower is rich in anthocyanins, salts and organic acids, minerals and has a high content of ascorbic acid, i.e. vitamin C, known for some time now as an antioxidant and good protector of the venous epithelia.

I would venture a theory for this association: The red color of the extract = effect on blood, both being of the same color we can refer to an ancient discipline of the Greek tradition, called the "Doctrine of signs".

This doctrine, one of the most famous who used was Hippocrates, says that, observing a plan by its shape, color, structure, we might discover the benefits on our body or the unpleasant effects. I am a practical example: Polmonaria officinalis family of Borraginaceae ( Scientific name very indicative).

By observing the leaf we see that its shape, including maculazioni in upper page, resembles a lung. This plant is still used in modern herbal for various problems to the lungs, particularly to improve expectoration.

I have also noticed another plant with similar association, a great Mimosaceae The Parkia biglobosa that has the inner part of the bark of a beautiful red color and its flower reminds a heart: Well, this plant is used to reinforce the heartbeat.

For the production of beverages is used sorghum: the result is a kind of beer Dorò call, a fermented beverage that at first impact is as a irrancidito juice.

MR GINSENG
As the drink you grow accustomed and for the spirit of adaptation or for lack of alternatives, always take more taste and often you find yourself stagger between the alleys in search of families that produce it. The method for finding it is easy, at least Nouna: even if the country is almost completely free of electricity and night falls in a rarefied atmosphere, the dim faint lights of candles reflect the fuss that rises up from the streets, showing all the harshness of the territory. Follow the music and the chiasso and find you who sells the beverage, traditionally served in a bowl made from a small pumpkin divided in half. For every …

"refuelling station" will bring together musicians in possession of their instrument, which is often the balaphone (traditional African xylophone), musicians, who at times are rewarded with the same Dorò, in order to be able to do from attraction and recall.

To enter in the topic "traditional medicine" I have to say that it is not easy to be able to acquire information. The heads of the villages, which are often also experts erboristi or Sciaratan, a species of priests - shamans linked still animistiche beliefs, are very jealous of their wisdom that transmit only a selected subjects to pass on their knowledge. Also on this topic unfortunately I must add that the use of plants according to the tradition becomes more difficult, given that young people fleeing more often from the villages to find luck in the big cities and the advent of modern pharmacy, from one side to luck and from one side to disgrace, tends to change the traditions.

Moreover the African tradition does not write to pass on the knowledge: in fact it is said that when in a village dies an elder is as if it were burned a library. For this over the last few years I would particularly cataloging plants and collect the germplasm of these areas in order to be able to retain, in my small, the customs of these peoples and prevent possible extinction of some varieties.

There are two main classes of use of medicinal plants: a more ancient and deeply tied to this continent, is in relation to the animistic vision with magical practices-spiritual. In the second, a more modern vision, contaminated to the point that some plants with analgesic action are called "vegetable aspirin".

In 2003 a Joint Committee of the members of the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei and the National Academy of Sciences said of XL has examined, essentially on the plane of scientific information, the topic of genetically modified organisms (GMOS), giving rise to the publication of a precious booklet packed with over 200 references.1

MR GINSENG The publication is still today one of the documents more weighted and scientifically valid that have been written in Italy on the subject of genetically modified plants (PGM). It could have been a point of reference in the turmoil debate that the country was starting and that would have continued up to the present day. Unfortunately it is assisted, instead, to a debate excruciatingly in which the positions most imaginative were and are still today, expressed without the concern to corroborate the allegations with valid scientific bases. The elaborated by the Commission has been forgotten or cited to denigrate him, also accused of not having taken a position for or against the use of these new technologies or products developed with their use. There was therefore a serious scientific comparison.

On the other hand the public is formed on televised debates on articles in the press or on the Blog posts of the Internet into a screwing of words often without any factual basis.

All dominated by a strong spirit of part: we are faced with two parties - pros and cons - often without argue, but trying to screditarsi each other. No steps have been taken and GMOS are still a topic of strong division.

The scientific community is part of the National Academy of Sciences said of XL feels the duty to return to this subject, taking into account that in the meantime, much progress has been made on a scientific level and that it seems appropriate to consider the implications of alternative choices: essentially decide whether benefit or less by the advancement in scientific knowledge and the development of new technologies, in view of what is happening in other economies.

On the other hand the President of the European Commission, Jean-Claude Juncker, has proposed a more intense involvement of the academies and their networks in the new mechanism to make an independent scientific advice to policy makers in the EU and to contribute to the debate on the benefits and risks of existing policies and/or introduce. One of the authors of this document has been part of working groups organised by the Scientific Advisory Board of European academies (European Academies Science Advisory Council - EASAC) with the aforesaid aims2,3,4and was able to transfer some experience in that area in this document.

The starting point is therefore to inform the public and all those who have to take decisions from the advances of science and technology and the opportunities they offer and the risks to which they expose.

MR GINSENG The current situation of genetically modified crops in the world and in the EU

GM crops have concerned, in 2014, over 180 million hectares of land belonging to 18 million farmers in 28 nations. The USA hold the primacy with more than 73 million hectares, equal to 40% of the surface, followed by Brazil, Argentina, India and China. The species cultivated are corn, soybean, cotton, rape, sugar beet, alfalfa, papaya, courgettes, poplar, tomato, pepper and aubergine5.

Initially in GM crops were introduced characters such as resistance to insects and tolerance to herbicides; now they are adding other, as the low level of the carcinogen acrylamide in potato6, the reduced percentage of lignin in alfalfa to increase digestibility and reduce the emission of gases in ruminants7, the tolerance to the reduced availability of water in the sugar cane8, the resistance to viruses in soya9 and bean, while diffuse cultures equipped with two or more of said characteristics, for example resistance to herbicides and insects.

The 90% of crops is curated by small farmers, 15 million of whom are in China and India and enjoy an increase in income estimated at over 33 billion $ USA and a decrease of more than 50% of insecticides, with not a few advantages for the health of the operators and the environment1. Five Nations of the EU - Spain, Portugal, Czech Republic, Romania and Slovakia - have grown, always in 2014, maize with the gene Bt, for resistance to corn borer, derived from Bacillus thuringiensis.

In Italy the cultivation of GM plants is currently prohibited, as is forbidden experimentation in the field. Cultivations in full field, operated by farmers using the regulatory provisions issued by the European Commission were destroyed by order of the judicial authorities. Experimental fields, duly authorised, have been the subject of vandalism. Experimental fields were first approved and then destroyed by order of the judicial authorities, which discourages the willingness of researchers and frustrating years of research and experimentation, whose early termination has also prevented to gather useful indications. Research institutions constrain the provision of funding for research at the commitment not to use the GM technology on the part of researchers. Many scientists are forced to go abroad to build and nurture GM plants even with the only purpose to verify the action of specific genes.

An aspect not to be overlooked is that different nations, such as Brazil, China and India have developed in house innovative technologies and have constituted varieties respectively bean, soya and aubergine, without resorting to multinational companies.

Emerging indications

What is happening in other nations cannot do not relate to the EU and Italy in particular. So it is now well documented that:

- the GM technology accelerates the process of genetic improvement. Restrict or prohibit it means reducing the technological options and the ability to compete on the one hand and increasing dependence on imports to meet the demand on the other. The annual deficit on the balance of trade of the seed and the reproductive material exceeds 60 million euro (310 million imports against 250 million exports). To be imported are especially seeds high technological innovation, such as maize, potato, ortho flower10;

- the nations who cultivate PGM are important producers and exporters in the world grain vital of foodstuffs and mangimistiche and govern the international market. Italy is a net importer of corn (balance 2014: -837.129.000 €), soy ((balance 2014: -563.881.000 €), soy flour (balance 2014: -754.620.000 €), barley (balance 2014:-117.197.000 €) and wheat (7% for the purpose mangimistico)11. The situation has become serious in the last decade as a result of the increasing demand coming from emerging countries because of their economic growth and change in eating habits, increasingly turned to the consumption of meat, as well as for events unfavorable meteorological11. The prospects of numerical growth of the world population and demand that it will put in international markets12 will also mean that the EU and Italy in particular will be exposed to a strong competition in international markets of agricultural and food products.

Studies indicate that the number of GM varieties should treble in the next few years and that the number of species and the affected characters will continue to diversify, will increase the total volume of GM material, with major difficulties in the supply of foodstuffs not GM.13

The restrictions placed on the experimentation, production and cultivation of PGM in Italy, the obligation to keep separate the imported commodities in function of the technology used in the constitution of the varieties from which derives the imported goods , the obligation to label products from GM crops will add an additional weight to the costs of imports and hence the prices of food commodities;

Italian food widened denounces a negative balance (-6.143 million euros in 2014, referred -3.080 million for goods of food use), despite the positive balances of wines + liqueurs, pasta + sweets + bakery products, vegetables, meats, coffee and mineral water. To be in strong deficiency is the primary sector for food use (-12.011 million euros in 2014).14

It is also to be underlined that the Italian model of commercial specialization in the field of agri-food is much less diversified with respect to that of major competitors. Among the products in which Italy has a comparative advantage, those that they really count are few and they are also the ones where the greater competition and where there is a higher need to differentiate the Italian product also through intangible elements, the fruit of research; many are instead minor products, niche in which Italy has elements of uniqueness, but which cannot be regarded as significant factors of towing the economic growth15.

By the end of the second world war until the oil crisis of the Seventies, Italy was indeed considered a paradigmatic case of growth led by exports.16 Subsequently, in particular over the past 15-20 years, exports have ceased to be the engine of growth.17

The comparative advantages of the Italy remain high where already exist (the "Made in Italy"), while it is lost ground in the most innovative sectors, with a higher content of technology and know-how. Meanwhile new exporting countries overlook the competitive arena global with a strong dynamism even in terms of improving the quality of the goods sold.15

Investments in research and innovation for the agricultural system, which characterize the western world, have fallen sharply in recent decades, while investments of several emerging countries such as India (doubled), China (quintupled), Brazil, etc., are continuously increasing.18,19,20

Even more important is the fact that the tendency concerns not only the public sector but also in the private sector,21,22 whose funding in China and India have quintupled in less than 20 years. In many emerging countries, the private sector is becoming the main investor - alone or in collaboration with the public sector - for the development of agricultural technologies.23

The sector most active is that of biotechnology, in which investments exceed 10 % of the value of the sale of the seed;24 the variety of GM maize in South Africa and the varieties of cotton in India are but two examples25. In the EU, and in Italy in particular, have developed the inverse trend. The regulatory restrictions, the adoption of the precautionary principle, the propaganda part have discouraged investors; bearing witness to this is the drastic reduction in the number of requests for authorization to sale and cultivation in full field submitted to EFSA, the European Agency for Health Food: were 113 in 2009 and only 44 in 2012. In conclusion Three points seem to be emphasized:

- in many countries the agricultural production is becoming increasingly important, but not in the EU and not in Italy, where the use of the advances of science and technology for the agricultural system are discouraged and/or prevented;

- the situation affects not only the GM crops but also other new technologies, for which find it difficult even to assess the impact of the different technologies; - Many non-EU countries have gained considerable experience in the regulatory aspects and have developed regulatory systems to clear and transparent. In the EU and in Italy in particular is far from possess said experience, for which it is difficult even only legislate and/or normare.

Environmental impact

Many studies show that GM crops, characterised by tolerance to herbicides and resistance to insects are making a significant contribution to sustainable development.21,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33

If you enter in cultivation systems are scientifically correct, they can:

- raise the income and the health of small farmers, for the increased harvest, the decrease in production costs and exposure to chemical compounds, - to reduce the environmental impact of herbicides and insecticides,

- reduce the working of the soil, thus reducing the erosion,

- reduce the production of greenhouse gases, for the lowest energy consumption for the manufacture, transport and distribution of medical facilities. The theme of environmental damage has long been debated. Numerous reviews on the data available on the crops are important for European agriculture indicate that GM crops have not so far caused environmental damage.1.34

MR GINSENG Even the analysis of over 2000 scientific publications - conducted by the Swiss National Science Foundation - demonstrates that the cultivation of PGM has so far not caused damage on the environment or health.35

In reality GM crops have been subjected to a number of analysis ever seen previously for any other culture of the food chain and the results show how they are equivalent from the point of view of feed to crops non-GM.36

It was also resolved the initial uncertainty with regard to possible effects on other organisms, the ecosystem agricultural soil on gene flow toward wild species and invasive.37

In the cases of Moria of monarch butterfly supplied with pollen from transgenic maize,38 the death of guinea pigs reared with corn transgenic equally,39 the passage of DNA from maize to teosinte,40, the progenitor of maize, have allowed to clarify many of the aspects of the problem. Contrary to what was initially feared, documentation demonstrates how the cultivation, for example, cotton varieties transgenic for a gene of Bacillus thuringientis has caused, in America and in Asia,41 the decline of other insects, harmful to agriculture, as a consequence of the lesser use of insecticides, which strike indiscriminately even the natural enemies of pests. Recent research shows how DNA segments, for example of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the bacterium used for introducing DNA into plants are naturally present in wild and cultivated that so far have not been the subject of genetic transformation and far from GM crops.42

As always in science any result is exposed to critical. Therefore it is important that the scientific community to continue to evaluate the effects of the PGM on the environment so as to inform the authorities and the public.

Eu regulations

The EU legislation, to which the Italian legislation must rely, in the field of plant cultivation and use of foodstuffs coming from GM crops is long, complex and varies in time. Its description would be specialist and out of place in this seat. However, the essential aspects can be traced back to the following points:

The basic document is the European Commission Directive No. 18 of 2001 "on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms and repealing Council Directive 90/220/EC". Subsequently in the Directive has been inserted Article 26 bis "Measures to avoid the unintended presence of GMOS" that allows Member States (SM) of "…take all appropriate measures to avoid the unintended presence of GMOS in other products". This Article also provides that the Commission developments "…guidelines on the coexistence of genetically modified crops and conventional and organic".

The methods of evaluation and authorisation of GM crops are established by Regulation (EC) n. 1829 of 2003. The legislation stipulates that the guiding principle to accept new technologies should be the precautionary principle, but its implementation has not yet taking into account the condition, also provided for in the legislation, that "an appropriate interpretation of the precautionary principle should include a comparison of the risks of the status quo with those seats from other possible routes of action."43 In July 2010, this legislation will be added to the 'Commission recommendation concerning the coexistence', which gives greater flexibility for Member States to prohibit or restrict the cultivation of GM plants in their territory on the basis of local situations, regional or national level. In practice it provides space to considerations that go beyond the scientific assessments of the risks to health and the environment.

On 26 September 2012, with the judgment in Case C-36/11, the European Court of Justice ruled that the culturing of PGM may not be subjected to processes of national authorization.44

In other words, GM crops authorised by the Commission may not be subjected to a new authorisation procedure on the part of a Member State, nor can prohibit the cultivation of PGM already grown in one of the States of the Union. All this, however, pending rules of coexistence of which the SM must equip itself. Incidentally, in April 2014 is rejected by the TAR of Lazio recourse advanced against the prohibition of the cultivation of transgenic maize, issued by the Minister of Agriculture of the Italian Government in contrast with the European legislation.

The Directive n. 412 of 11 March 2015 amending Directive n. 18 of 2001 as regards the possibility for Member States to restrict or prohibit the cultivation of GMOS in their territory. In particular it, inter alia, lays down that:

- the SM in which are cultivated GMOS should adopt, with effect from 3 April 2017, measures in order to ensure that in the border areas of their territory are avoided any transboundary contamination in neighboring Member States where the cultivation of such GMOS is prohibited;

- in the course of the procedure for authorisation or for renewal of authorization to the cultivation of a given GMO, one SM may require to adapt the geographical scope of the authorization so that all or part of the territory of the SM is excluded from cultivation;

- one SM can take measures to limit or prohibit in whole or in part of its territory the cultivation of a GMO or of a group of GMOS are defined on the basis of the culture or to the character, once authorised under part C of the directive or regulation (EC) n. 1829/2003, provided that such measures are not in accordance with the law of the Union, motivated and respectful of the principles of proportionality and non-discrimination and that are based on factors imperatives such as those relating to environmental policy objectives, territorial and urban planning, use of the soil, the socio-economic impacts, need to avoid the presence of GMOS in other products, objectives of agricultural policy, public order. Ultimately the legislation becomes the practice of individual SM.

Also trade food from genetically modified plants cultivated in Italy or abroad, must be authorised in the European Union, after having passed a rigorous assessment of their safety; risk assessment that the cultivation of GM plants or food consumption by humans or animals can determine is carried out by the European Agency for Health Food (EFSA), established, with more extensive responsibilities in January 2002 with headquarters in Parma.

EFSA processes scientific advice to the Commission, the European Parliament and the Member States of the European Union.

The assessment of GMOS by EFSA is carried out on the basis of scientific dossiers submitted by the applicant and any other relevant scientific information. For all requests are taken into consideration the following aspects:

- the molecular characterisation of the GM product, taking into account the characteristics of the donor and recipient organism; - the composition and nutritional characteristics and agronomic characteristics of the gm product;

- the potential toxicity and allergenicity of the gm product;

The New Zealand flora has an average number of chromosomes double with respect to the Italian one.



The discovery is of two researchers pisani of the Department of Biology, Lorenzo Peruzzi and Gianni Bedini that cooperated with a colleague from New Zealand, Murray I. Dawson. "The results of our survey - explains Peruzzi - if backed by further research suggests a hypothesis is very evocative and that for plants exist evolutionary mode different in the two hemispheres, austral and boreal".

The succulent plants are diffusissime apartments and houses, perhaps for the few treatments requiring, perhaps for their exotic charm. In this area of the site you find detailed info on lots of succulent plants. The succulent plants, also called

"Succulentes", are equipped with particular tissues able to absorb the excess water, by storing inside them to then release it in case of need.

Thanks to this their peculiarities, the succulent plants can grow even in arid zones: consider for example to cacti of the desert areas of Centroamérica, which accumulate rainwater in the leaves, in casks and in roots, which in fact appear swollen fleshy in the case of healthy plant and well hydrated.

Obesum: Treatment

Greenhouses and tunnel in biological. Benefits, negative aspects and advice for providing protective structures for the cultivation of species outside the local seasonality, safeguarding the organic substance present.

These tools to protect the soil from the particular climatic conditions, forcing us to better reflect on the use of the ground in order to preserve and improve the presence of organic substance and its use.

The covers of the soil are usable under regulation but, unlike the conventional agriculture are not allowed use of heat generators artificial to modify the temperature, with the sole exclusion of emergency systems to prevent frost or inside nurseries for production of seedlings for the subsequent transplant.

We will therefore refer to the tunnel or cold greenhouses i.e. not heated by artificial systems, that are typically present in organic farms or in family gardens.

Advantages and disadvantages of greenhouses and tunnel:

Release the weather conditions for the preparation of the land, seeding and transplants in periods of adverse climate (even if in some cases, when the precipitations are abundant and persistent in time, there occur phenomena of capillary ascent to which the external water migrates inside the greenhouse);

Greater accumulation of heat during the cold months: this mainly concerns the greenhouses very large because the volume of air present is proportional to the maintenance of high temperatures inside the structure because of the so-called "greenhouse effect";

Best protection from ultraviolet rays during the summer season: many plant species (among which the tomato salad, the pepper and the cucumber), whose varietal selection was forced in order to obtain more productive varieties, has led to the obtainment of plants that are more sensitive to sunburn and therefore suitable in most conditions, the exclusive cultivation inside the tunnel also in the summer period;

Inside the greenhouses are considerably more effective all interventions of biological control carried out with the liberation of parasites of parasites (such as for example the larvae of crisoperla or bug for the fight against aphids) or capture massale of Diptera tripidi or carried out with the cromotropiche traps or the use of insects pronubi pollinators in the case of tomatoes and strawberries.

These structures but also have the following disadvantages: Quantity of soil limited: are more difficult to perform the rotations within the company if there are no facilities in sufficient number;

Increased risk of infestation by pathogens: being more concentrated number of plants and generally limited recycling of air, the animal parasites and fungi grow more quickly, especially in the case of pathogens present in the ground, such as for example the nematodes.

How do the greenhouse (size, place, Internal equipment)

First of all it should be pointed out that the wider the greenhouse and the consequent volume of air contained in it, the fewer thermal shock and the probability of having large temperature differences at the different heights of the greenhouse itself

(very different indeed is the ground temperature and to the ridge). Starting from this assumption, and verified any regulatory constraints of the commune in which they are installed, must be sized on the basis of the actual business need taking into account that all cultures must be placed in rotation in the same way as those cultivated on the outside and that before ricoltivare a species on the same ground should pass at least two cycles (even if it would be better to pass four or five).



Decided on the surface, it should prefer the structures that have a vertical foot right instead of curved (as in the drawing) because they allow you to better exploit the space by using all the different machines present and available. It is obviously advisable to structures used if they were available however doing attention to check its sealing to the wind and to the load of snow first of all for the safety of persons and, secondly, for not losing crops and structures in the case of meteorological phenomena more intense than usual.

It is recommended to choose a location on a terrain in good-excellent condition to not waste this investment and you remember to do so that the level of the ground inside the greenhouse is possibly higher than the level of the external medium (campaign plan)

to avoid that during the winter months and in the case of long periods of rain, the water migrates inside worsening the conditions of cooling of the ground (a damp soil does not allow to the roots of the plants to breathe and warms up much more slowly than a dry soil).

Another constructional element important is the possibility to open the sides of the greenhouses up to the highest point on the sides or, better yet even if more expensive, can also open in the highest point of the ridge to facilitate an optimum air circulation and the elimination of the layers more hot during the summer season.

Inside the greenhouse is always preferable to work on the flowerbeds, raised from the level of the surrounding land to avoid the formation of stagnant regions. It is also appropriate to provide an irrigation system suited to crops that are to be planted. Generally plants are used to micro drip irrigation tube

(black plastic with a diameter of about 2 cm provided with small holes between their distant 20-40 cm), or aerial plants that frammentino the drops of water in the best possible way. This system of "mist", among other things, is one of the best ways to limit the infestation of ragnetto red (mite) typical of the summer months on plants of eggplant.

During cold periods and especially on crops sown and low stature as salads, of spinach and radishes is possible and advisable to use also the nonwoven fabric to further improve the thermal performance of total protection structures.

As for the outside would be preferable to plant species different from each other inside the same structure in order to restrict the spread of pathogens and facilitate the natural interference. Obviously this is more easily obtainable in the gardens or in greenhouses products for direct sale to consumers in business sales.

Lastly it is recalled that at the end of the "life" of covering sheets is useful leave completely uncovered the facilities for at least one production cycle in order to allow the rain water and sun to reach directly the soil usually covered, giving it new vitality.



General information: caudiciforme plant with branched stems with brown color, with base swells, formed both by the roots that from the barrel, which has the task to store water.

Leaves: the leaves are oval, shiny and leathery, with prominent veins on the lower base.

Flowers: pink, white or crimson, with the outer margins darker, appear on new branches and reach the diameter of 13 cm. The flowers are followed by green fruits bilobati. Exposure: bright and sunny; in apartment must be exposed in full sun.

Temperature: the Winter minimum cannot fall below sixteen degrees because he loves the climate hot and dry, for which in warmer months can stand on the terrace, while in winter it must stay in the apartment.

Watering: from October to May must be watered once every two weeks; in the remaining months whenever the soil is dry. The plants placed in a small jar however need watering more frequent.

Fertilization: during the period of growth or flowering must be given a liquid fertiliser for cacti every two weeks, halving the dose provided in the guidance. Soil: universal soil with addition of grit or the soil already ready suitable to cacti. The soil must be well drained to prevent rotting.

Multiplication: it performs for seed in the same compound of wet cultivation, putting the vessel under a glass bell. Being a plant at very slow growth, will flourish after about three-four years.

Pests and diseases: fears very cold because it can make it rot. Can be attacked by cochineal Bruna.

The study of researchers Pisani and New Zealanders revolutionizes in fact a Theory formulated between the years '50 and '70 and still credited in the scientific world in which the percentage of polyploidy (and consequently the average number of chromosomes) in plants should increase proportionally to the latitude.

The "polyploidy", i.e. the have multiple copies of the same set of chromosomes, is in fact one of the evolutionary mechanisms of plant species that can determine the benefits adaptives, useful for example to plants which, moving away from the equator, should perhaps survive in colder climates. According to this theory therefore the average number of chromosomes of the Italian flora and that

New Zealand should be approximately equal, given that the two countries, surprisingly similar from the point of morphology, are more or less the same latitude even if in opposing hemispheres. And instead is not so. "The New Zealand flora - explains Peruzzi - has a number average chromosomal around 2n = 60 (60.9), almost perfectly double than that of the Italian flora, which is around 2n = 30 (30,54)".

We like plants: beings "resilient" - Blog

" There is already happened, at least once in their life, to amaze you of your own abilities?

A moment in which you said "I cannot do it and instead you have managed to overcome everything?

For example the arrival of a great suffering, or when you have had to face the end of a marriage, when you have failed, you have lost everything and you had to start again from the beginning, when you had to change town, school, friends, when you thought of not being able to pass an exam! In these situations we often surprised of the resistance that we show of force that should we throw out as if by magic when we could not even imagine it! This ability is also known in psychology as "resilience".

In other words, "resilience", is the ability to heal from a wound. More precisely, it is the ability to return to the initial status, once arrived a few disturbance that has troubled this stillness state. It speaks of resilience also in ecology, in the botany, engineering, computer science, in biology.

For example there are ecosystems more or less resilient, i.e. more or less delicate and able or not to survive events that hurt a part thereof, such as earthquakes and other natural events, or pollution due to man. Resilience is also part of the plant world, plants are in fact able to heal their wounds.

Suffice it to think of the resin of the fir trees that drips from the lesions of the bark for suturing the damage suffered, or the capacity of some plants to root if broken and detached from the plant "mother".

I know. The vegetables and fruit you like very much. Especially raw. Apples, pears, cherries and strawberries, carrots, salad, Radish, Fennel, melons, peaches, grapes. And much more.

In fact, the vegetables and fruit foods are important to maintain our body in good health. Who consumes every day these extraordinary food ( breakfast snack, lunch and dinner) becomes stronger, withstands more easily to infections (colds and flu, for example), smiles more often, has better results at school.

However, many boys and also several adults they claim to have in the dish always the same products (for example: tomatoes, peppers, or perhaps, strawberries), indifferent to the fact of being in the spring, in summer or in winter. In other words

for many, at least at the table, it is as if the seasons did not exist. Disregarding the fact that every type of fruit and vegetables couple of course in a precise season.

Usually eat vegetables of season produces important advantages, for us and for the environment. The fruits and vegetables that are typical of the season are more flavorsome and generally have a lower price and contain a greater amount of nutritive substances (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates). Moreover (and is not a negligible aspect), can be grown without the use of large quantities of chemicals (often toxic for the environment and for the consumer).

Finally, consume fruits and vegetables in their typical season is a wise choice even for opposing the waste of energy and the alteration of the delicate balance of our planet. Only thinks that to produce strawberries in December (instead that in

May and June, months in which these fruits ripen naturally by exploiting the ecological solar energy) should be coltivarle in large heated greenhouses with methane or diesel fuel. Or import them from hotter countries of our. Which, however, are very far. Since the fresh vegetables will not withstand long journeys, you must use the airplane, consuming a lot of fuel and producing unnecessarily many greenhouse gases that increase global warming.

In Action

Write on a sheet such as fruits and vegetables which ripen in every month of the year and appendilo in the kitchen. You can easily consult it before making purchases. Accompanying parents do the shopping, you will observe that on the price tags is also marked the place of origin of fruits and vegetables.

Choose possibly products that were grown and harvested in your region.

Consumes preferably fruit and vegetables of the season.

Do not expect to eating the same things. Search instead of widening the choice of food that you put in your dish: a varied diet is more pleasant and more healthy than a monotonous.

In that month mature tomatoes?

Who cultivates the garden (an activity very relaxing and useful) knows which is the season of tomatoes or that of the cabbage.

But for those who think that the carrots are hung to the shafts or that apricots are manufactured in supermarkets, can be very useful to a visitina at the site there you can easily find, divided by region, fruits and vegetables that ripen in every month of the year. A useful guide for Shopping "second nature" (and not to demand the impossible).

It is a tree caducifoglio, high also a dozen meters, originating from Asia Minor and cultivated since antiquity in the

Mediterranean area to its fleshy infruttescenze sugary. The Keg, wrapped by a bark gray-blue, port of large leaves simple, alternate and form very variable provided with 3-5 lobes more developed toward the apex and with tiny flowers apetali, places the axilla of a leaf and in inflorescences that have a casing amphora shaped with small opening.



The inflorescence couple is represented by Fico, defined by scholars of botany siconio, a green, brown or dark purple, sometimes with streaks bluish, long about 5-8 cm, with the fleshy part or yellowish green.

A fruitful plant, symbol, in biblical times, freedom, prosperity and joyful life and widely cited in the Gospels and in the Koran, as reality botany and as a symbol of fertility of the peaceful life. "No nation will raise the sword against another and not learn more the art of war. Sit each quiet under his vine and under his fig tree, and none shall make them afraid" (Zechariah 3,10).

A shaft so that it stretches in history to return in a hushed elegy the slow pace of the seasons, shadows, colors, smells, fragrances in their natural sobriety and with which it is possible to make a Grand Tour in time and space euganeo that has been a meeting point between gastronomic tastes, geographic panoramas, memories, memories, nostalgia. This plant, Beguinot (1909-1914) in the

Flora Padovana noted for the first time its spontaneizzazione inside of the Woods Euganei: "cultivated in many varieties and here and there a spontaneous (= F. caprificus) in slopes better exposed of the Euganei.

" The phyto-ethnobotany euganea recalls some uses: at Arquã Petrarca, Faedo a decoction of siconio was used as a mouthwash solution in the case of dental abscesses and stomatitis and leaf injured or the latex were applied on a Leek, whose base was tied with a wire to facilitate its removal. It was the tradition to throw away from home the sheet because otherwise the leeks would be returned. In Rovolon (1964),

the decoction of fresh plant was applied in a compress on abscesses; the latex on the insect bites.

The leaf injured was applied directly on a Leek. In Castelnuovo (1973), was recommended a daily dietary supplementation with fresh figs in case of constipation.



A little throughout the district euganeo, Ethnobotany still recalls that in the week before Easter, you confezionava with the marrow of young branches, a paschal colombina, which is painted red eyes pungendosi the fingertip of the index finger of the left hand with the plug of the Paliurus spina-christi.

Historical in pharmacopoeias are cited the pectoral fruits (dried figs, raisins, giuggiole, dates) and fruits questuanti (dried figs, almonds, raisins, hazelnuts), in memory of the four orders (Franciscans, Dominicans, Augustinians, Carmelites) who liked these fruits during the gathering before winter

Crumbs of archive

Fico2Synonyms Ficus. Ray.; Ficus communis Tourn.; Ficus vulgaris. Park.; Ficus sativa. Fuch..

The Spot "Loca Aprica, calculosa, glareosa, interdum et saxeta Hamath. Eiusmodo agro convalescit I quote, you scrobes amplos et feceris idoneos." (It loves the sunny places, full of Sassetti, gravel, and sometimes even the stony places. In a medium of this kind takes strength in a hurry, If thou doest however was large and suitable.) (Columella)

"Born of seed without doubt the fico... But appigliasi as well branch lifted from the arbore and planted in the ground scassata (...) that is frustatorio the them of seed come." (Tanara)

"Around then at the exit of may come out the figs flowers, so called because in the place that the other shafts before fruit produce (...) a flower much bigger that it is its fruit, which is on the principle of September; and this lasts a twenty-five or thirty day and no more; and Vinezia the call "fico Madonna". (Castelvetro, p. 7)

Cocina

"You take the figs which have begun to wither in your plant or pedal and without sbucciargli opens from flower up to the stem, do not separate, you bring to the sun and when they are somewhat dried up you mattono of anasi and riserrano not alone but paired with find him of similar magnitude, potendoli join also in four cross knight; then serrano and retorqued argue over some lath in the sun, without giving them the oven and however a little pasty you bring to soils in baskets calcati well". Anonymous (1800)

MR GINSENG "... mangiandoli does not want us to be here ne oil, ne salt, ne other seasoning, magiando until the petiole and anco zest..." (Falcone, p. 319)

Giovamenti Nocumenti /

"figs nutriscono not because the grain and meat, but most of the other fruits and more soon..." (Mattioli)

"buckets, therefore only son good but with the pellate màndole intiere and make up amount very large in the form of a cheese, which retain for lent (...) for maturar cough in the 'winter purchased from being man heated and immediately cooled, dried figs vouchers or rancid, roasted with fire and eaten when (Va) to sleep to lie down, benefit absolutely way." (Castevetro, p. 7)

Historic recipe: Frictelle de solid figs.

"Catch a pocde loving them, et of fussy secundo the amount that vole do, et pistale very well, et grant that they are white et nette, agiongendoli doi chips dried, et a little de raisin concomitantly with a pistare. Then habi a little petrosillo cut menuto et a little raisins integrates with bone spetie.

This et compositione if it were too narrow agiognivi a little of rose water; et habi chips dried open et busciate by hand below, i.e. from the flower; et la impierai very well in this compositione frigendola to ascio in bono oglio infarinandole, then a pochetto above." (Maestro Martino da Como)

Resilience is what unites our world with the world of plants. If we put the human world and that plant comparison we will discover that you have so much in common. For example we also need light, water, oxygen and heat. We are also living beings in symbiosis with the external environment that surrounds us and that gives us the nourishment that we need. But if these things are known, perhaps not everyone knew that both we and the plants we are resilient.

The plants remind us that we also have the innate ability to heal the wounds, start afresh, put new roots. Their, so fragile and defenseless, despite all the difficulties, never fail to amaze us, survive despite our care clumsy and often surprise us with new shoots and flowers. And then this magical ability of plants to generate new roots from a cuttings, i.e. a simple piece of the plant from which it was removed. Of course not all lepiante can survive with us in our apartments, but this does not detract from the fact that never stop fighting and wish with all their DNA, to be able to grow and prosper.

The plants remind us that we too must fight, even when life puts us in front of the challenges soon that we would have preferred risparmiasse us. The time and our stubbornness will know, floor plan, close the wounds and allow us to restart, different from the first, it is up to us to choose if weaker or stronger!

It is difficult to say what can live exactly a shaft: much depends on the species to which it belongs and the environmental conditions in which he lives, of course. Anyway a shaft can reach age so enduring that exceed the centuries and make the plants witnesses of the evolution of man.

Today there are telling the story of 12 legendary trees located in the most remote corners of the Earth, a gallery of old trees that in some way tell the story of man and his beliefs.

Cypress of Montezuma(Photograph of infinite Highway, Getty Images)

It makes no sense to "manure" the ground but it should "seek to maintain and improve the fertility" manure or compost: what to choose? One of the most frequent questions that arises who begins the adventure of a sustainable ortho or who decides to become this your garden

We take advantage of the winter step for addressing one of the issues that is very often the subject of questions and interesting questions on the part of both agricultural producers of both small growers who devote themselves to the care of a few square meters for the supply of their own family.

As we have already said, the winter period is not a period of rest as an end in itself but is a period in which people who are dedicated to the care of the land must find the answers to the questions that arise during periods of intense work and who have not found the answer precisely because of the lack of time to find information or compare with other horticulturists.

At the base of a garden managed on a "biological" (with all the different meanings of the term and in all the different philosophies understood by this method) there must be a fertile soil (as we have already said many times but we remember him because it is the cornerstone of the whole method that we apply).

MR GINSENG The word "fertile" does not correspond, as well as simply in the world of the conventional one wishes to do mean, by "manured". Manured is a term that refers to a medium to which were added nutrients without taking into account (or taking into account only marginally) of everything that happens and that is related to what has been added. Aspects such as the vitality, the shapes that compose the vitality, the structure, the diversity of the structure in the various layers (different depth) of the soil, the type of crops that have preceded and that it will happen to the moment of fertilization, the type of machining, the flows of migration of the liquids and gases, and gradually other factors, difficult to find a place in the "recipes" that sellers of fertilisers and many technicians little attentive package recommending products concimanti horticulturists.

Fertility, instead, is a set of physical, chemical and biological especially that can be known only by time and only carefully observing the ground and what happens to what we cultivate above. It is precisely for this reason that it makes no sense to "manure" the ground but it should "seek to maintain and improve the fertility". How can we expect, therefore, to act on a set of characteristics with a product such as a simple manure?

It is for this reason that we are talking about letamazione and use of compost, while green fallow we already talked about some time ago.

The letamazione is a practice known since antiquity and at the base of world agriculture (where they were disseminated bovine herds) until the fifties. At the time, moreover, you spoke little even of composting because the management of the dunghill was substantially little different from managing a heap of compost. The manure was slowly accumulated, together with those kitchen scraps or pruning that were not already a part of the food ration of livestock enterprise.

We were faced, in fact, to a manure produced from animals fed with a ration extremely diversified and therefore already rich with a huge diversity of fibers and nutrients.

The dung heap remained stationary for several months and was treated in such a way that the liquid that overflown were returned to maintain an ideal level of humidity and the presence of nutrients. In this way they produced an excellent basis for the development of the fertility of the soil, which improved the structure and increased the capacity of the bacterial flora, fungal and microfauna to work making it readily available the nutrients necessary for the growth and prosperity of cultivated plants.

Intensive livestock farms have caused a big loss of varieties of food ration with a first qualitative decay of manure produced. The intensive use of drugs for the treatment of livestock more "frustrated" and therefore more subject to diseases, falls on the manure that becomes itself "antibiotic" i.e. "anti-life" and therefore, unfortunately capable of suppressing or reducing strongly the biological vitality of this with which it comes into contact.

The need to rapidly dissipate the mass of manure produced for the respect of rules very often without direction from the agronomic point of view, as last factor analyzed and involves the production of masses too fresh and the phenomena of rot (that in addition to be harmful for the bacterial flora of the soil also produce a bad bit smelly).

The maturation of manure involves various positive aspects including: the almost complete inactivation of weed seeds that have exceeded the digestive system of animals, the slaughter of the presence of fungal diseases that can cause problems to the plants, the disappearance of bad odours and, especially, the enrichment in organic substances complex by the microbial flora and fungal present. The maturation of manure consists in fact in a slow transformation of organic compounds present in chains via more articulated and "complex" which in soil fertility guarantee because they constitute a substrate of optimum growth for all vital forms present.

It is precisely for this reason that, at least not to know the herd from which originates a manure, it is preferable to avoid the use. If instead you near a stable that there seems to be well managed, but you can see that from the moment of production at the time of the distribution changes too little time because manure is mature then you may recover and make it grow in your ortho-company.

And it is for this that we speak of compost. First of all it is necessary to clarify that there are different types of compost:

The cumulation/biodynamic compost produced according to a method that provides for the introduction of preparations useful to activate the processes of enrichment of cumulation;

The compost which is located in the shops, resulting generally from compost of controlled public green and other nature; The compost which is realized in the company or at home.

As regards the biodynamic compost is appropriate to refer to the texts published by the Biolca, to training meetings, courses and in comparison with other people that carry out this method and that I invite you to discover.

As regards the compost that you buy there are many things to say. When it is absolutely certain that the source and the production method then there are problems; unfortunately, often the commercial compost products are also "diluting"

residual sludge in the treatment of other byproducts and, consequently, it is very difficult to understand exactly what is inside. While respecting the limits of the law, in fact, the presence is provided of various heavy metals that, in our garden, perhaps we would not like to have. The choice is not so simple, for this in the next issue we will be talking about the method of production of compost business or family.

Some believe that this cypress of Montezuma, also known as Árbol of Tule, both the shaft thicker than the world. According to the committee that deals with the nomination for the Patrimony of Humanity by UNESCO, the plant measure 35 meters in diameter and 30 of height. The tree owes its name to the church of Santa Maria del Tule in the Mexican State of Oaxaca, in which the shaft is located from about 2,000 years, when perhaps was planted by a priest to the Aztecs.

Baobab, Madagascar (Photograph of Mint Images Limited, Alamy)

You have certainly also notice you. I am referring to those people who see every so often rummaging in one hand a plastic bag and in the other a stick in some bin of waste. Or who prowl (becoming noted the less possible, otherwise li Hunt) in

the back of the supermarkets looking for something good to eat among the mountains of food that every supermarket eliminates every day.

Many of them, in fact, fail to live simply recovering from the junk food still good, but that for various reasons it is more economical to throw away rather than sell. Simply thinks that the need to have the shelves always full (Have you ever seen an empty space on the shelf of a supermarket?)

constrains the direction of the supermarket to buy a number of packages greater than those that you sell. Some, once you arrive too close to the expiration date, should be deleted: none in fact buys a package of food with the expiry date too close, even if still perfectly edible. Add then the fact that even in many families there is, from this point of view, a poor organization. So much of the food purchased is not consumed, but ends up in the bin. Perhaps because you eat very often outside the home (for reasons of work or study).

Or because some food to be consumed, require a who cooks a little time and effort. The time and effort that has no more desire to use in this way. The result is that in our and other countries "developed" is thrown in the garbage a disproportionate amount of food that may still nourish thousands and thousands of people. You need to change something, do not find?

Wasted here, wasted there

In Milan, according to the association of bakers, go into landfill about 400 tons of bread each month. Bread that for some (a little absurd) sanitary disposal, cannot be transformed into breadcrumbs and sold to a person who wants to make dumplings or breading a schnitzel. The British Government has calculated that the subjects of Queen Elizabeth throw away a quarter of food purchased in a year (this is true food, not banana peels or cores apple), for a total of 112 kilos per person. In Italy it is estimated that the kilos of food thrown in 12 months are 73 a head.*

MR GINSENG

You may have heard speak some time of nuclear energy. If nothing else because some time ago, following a disastrous earthquake, there has been a serious accident in the nuclear plant of Japanese Fukushima that caused the radioactive contamination of many workers, as well as the villages, animals, sea and air.

The lilac by planting in autumn there are plants which constitute the aromatic base of a large part of the Italian dishes and world championships are easily cultivable also in our orchards and fields with some simple precautions and directions that will help in the management of any problems.

The Onion is a plant from the look very different with respect to plants that typically found in our garden because, above the bulb, form the characteristics leaves a tube (closed in the upper part) which go toward the light of the sun. The leaves of the garlic, instead, are more easily traceable to the leaves considered "normal".

Both plants, although having need of good availability of water, prefer land that drenino quickly or, in their absence, it is preferable to coltivarle on flowerbeds elevated with respect to the plane of the campaign in such a way that the roots have at their disposal a land rich in oxygen.

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