Activated Charcoal: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?


ACTIVATED CHARCOAL: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?
The activated charcoal or activated coal is a material consisting essentially of material carbon structure porous .

Called activated carbon coal having undergone any special preparation and, therefore, has a high degree the ability to fix and retain fluids brought in contact. It is an amorphous structure composed primarily of atoms of carbon , usually obtained after a step of carbonization at high temperature, having a high specific surface area gives it a strong power adsorbent . Adsorption is a surface phenomenon in which molecules bind to the surface of the adsorbent by weak bonds. This interaction is called low van der Waals force .

Evidence of the use of activated carbon back to the ancient times with medicinal uses by Hippocrates circa 400 BC. AD or for the purification of water by the Egyptians around 1550 BC. AD .. In the xviii th century, black animal , made ​​from bone, was used for the purification of liquids by filtration and discoloration, especially for the production of white sugar. This is the xx th century that the methods of production were improved to allow for industrial production of activated carbon for uses or applications listed. Since then, some production processes were developed to allow greater production of activated carbon and efficiency, such as activation by steam (Ostreijko, 1990 and 1991), and chemical activation (Bayer, 1915) 1 .

Summary [ hide ]
1 Manufacturing
2 Properties
3 Uses
3.1 Filtration
3.2 Chemistry [ 5 ]
3.3 Industry
3.4 Medicine
3.5 Food
3.6 Reactivation and regeneration
4 Miscellaneous
5 Notes and references
6 See also
6.1 Related articles
6.2 External link
6.3 Bibliography
Manufacturing [ change | change the code ]

Filter cartridge of activated carbon
Activated carbon can be produced from any plant carbon-rich organic material: wood , bark, wood pulp, hulls coconut , peanut hulls, pits of olives , or of coal , peat , lignite , waste petroleum .

The production is divided into two stages:

a first step of calcination or carbonization (or pyrolysis ), high temperature, of constituent materials. A first porosity is created by this step, in fact the elements other than carbon leave pores in the carbon matrix when volatilized;
a second activation step is to increase the power adsorbent , including removing tar that clog pores and are two separate processes:
Physical activation reburn with heat shock (at 900 to 1000 ° C ), carried out in a stream of air and vapor of water injected under pressure (method d ' oxidation controlled), will create million microscopic recesses on the carbon surface, dramatically increasing its surface and its adsorption capacity. This method gives a narrow pores coal,
chemical activation, especially the phosphoric acid between 400 ° C and 500 ° C . This method gives a wider coal pores.
The activated carbon may also be physically CO 2 , or chemically by Lewis acids (zinc chloride historically very was used) or potassium hydroxide. When the coals are chemically activated, the activating agent is rinsed and recycled.

Some methods used to combine the two steps.

The pore diameter also depends on the pores existing in the raw material used. Shells coconut and dense woods give micro-pores (<2 nm), average white wood give mesopores (between 2 and 50 nm) and macropores (> 50 nm).

Activated carbon is produced in almost every country in the world where there is wood resources (wood, nutshells, bark, twigs, leaves ...).

Properties [ change | change the code ]
The area developed by the activated carbon is enormous: an active gram of carbon has a surface area of 400 to 2,500 sqm. It is hydrophobic .

The adsorption of gas pores requires 1 to 2 nm, while pore February to October nm sufficient for the adsorption of liquid .

Use [ change | change the code ]

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The text could be written in the form of synthetic paragraphs, enjoyable reading.
Activated carbon is used in many areas:

Filtration [ change | change the code ]
filtration systems including contaminated air in fallout shelters ;
decontamination of drinking water : activated carbon retains a large number of organic compounds such as pesticides . This use accounts for 20% of the world market;
gas masks ;
filter cigarette;
filters used in ventilation systems closed circuit (for example, range hood );
filtration of organic pollutants (particularly drug treatments).
filtration system for aquarium 2
The " eco-textiles " developed in the 1980s based activated carbon woven fibers are used to produce masks for purifying air breathed by cyclists , military clothing or useful in the context of the fight against chemical, radiological or biological, absorbing some toxic or body odor (for clothes astronauts for example), the underwear flatulence odor absorbing 3 , or could be used to purify water and air, or in hospitals, or in some contexts, mainly due to hydroxyl radicals they create. Inexpensive, they are very efficient compared to other types of filters 4 .

Chemistry 5 [ change | change the code ]
dechlorination of water: drinking water and other liquid food ( beer , soft drinks, etc.). The chlorine chlorinated oxidants (chlorine Cl 2 ; hypochlorous acid: HClO; hypochlorite: ClO - ) is reduced to chloride (Cl - ) by action catalyst ;
liquid effluent treatment;
spotting of wine white as Champagne made ​​from Pinot Noir ( grape juice black to white): the pigments in the skin of grapes, which can color the juice is absorbed by a chemically-free activated carbon and iron in order to avoid hazes wine;
discoloration of the sugar ;
Decaffeination of coffee : with water;
storage of hydrogen (active carbon nanofibers or carbon derivatives);
support for metal catalytic ultra divided (eg platinum or nickel on charcoal);
removal of hydrocarbons in water.
Industry [ change | change the code ]
extraction of gold from ores (fixation on activated carbon);
storage of hydrogen (active carbon nanofibers or carbon derivatives);
brushes (rubbing) in generators and motors (use increasingly rare);
supercapacitors .
Medicine [ change | change the code ]
It has been used as a chelator in many poisonings, however the indications were very limited, mainly due to delays in treatment: activated charcoal ceases to be useful beyond 3-4 hours after poisoning;
digestive treatment with in particular the rate of lowering cholesterol and total rate of LDL 6 ;
diarrhea , activated charcoal is a constipating or antidiarrheal ;
heartburn, aérophagies, flatulence ;
and with relative success, in cases of gastro-enteritis , gastralgias, in states of infection of the intestine accompanied by constipation , of rumbling and intestinal fermentation;
some even use it as a poultice (mixed with water) to try to counter, just after the bite, the effects of venom from snakes , stinging of Hymenoptera ( bees ...) of arachnids ( spiders ...) and coelenterates ( sea anemone ...). The effectiveness of that use is not guaranteed.
We can get this activated charcoal (pharmacies or commercial) or Charcoal Belloc in pharmacies and health food stores in bio. In case of poisoning, quick medical advice remains indispensable.

Activated charcoal has no taste, no smell, no unpleasant effect. In the absence of ulcer peptic or intestinal obstruction , activated charcoal has virtually no cons-indications, except those related to any antidiarrheal product (see section Purification digestive ). It is very well tolerated even at high doses. As the adsorption is fast, it is effective upon ingestion. It should be noted, however, that taking activated carbon is not compatible with a drug treatment, the activated carbon adsorbs the active molecules of the same drug. We must therefore shift to 2 or 3 hours making charcoal with other medications.

Food [ change | change the code ]
Activated carbon is widely used in the food. Activated carbon is used for two families of applications for its properties of discoloration on the one hand and for its ability to purify the other. Found in activated carbon:

Discoloration sweeteners (glucose, sucrose, and derivatives of starch industry), organic acids from fermentation processes, amino acids and vitamins
Purification of vegetable and animal oils by removing PAH abatement of toxins in juice, water production "ingredient" for any type of food product.
animal feed (widely used in Canada ) [ref. needed] .
Reactivation and regeneration [ change | change the code ]

Largest plant reactivation of activated carbon in Feluy, Belgium.
Unlike powdered activated carbon that is either incinerated or landfilled, the GAC can be recycled.

The most used method is the thermal reactivation: the activated carbon is placed in an oven between 700 and 900 ° C in the presence of water vapor. The adsorbed molecules are then devolatilized pyrolisées. The residue present in the adsorption pores is gasified using steam in the atmosphere of the furnace. Activated carbon finds its initial structure free from pollutants.

It can also be regenerated by acid or alkaline washings. In this case, it recovers a portion of its capacity, as it is not possible to remove all of the adsorbed molecules. This is called working capacity.

Miscellaneous [ change | change the code ]
Activated charcoal is part of the essential drug list of the World Health Organization (updated list in April 2013) 7 .

Composition of super activated charcoal:

Ingredients 1 tablespoon (8 g): 8 g activated charcoal.

Use of activated charcoal great tips:

1 tablespoon in a glass of water after an overnight fast (spaced 3 hours of any drug intake).

For a cure drainage

Dosages are obviously flexible according to each case. On average, one can opt for protocol 2 tablespoons three meals for two weeks for an adult (about 50 g per day) and then continue at 3 tablespoons per day for one month if ?? we want to get a deep cellular drainage.

For a child, replace tablespoons teaspoons, and s ?? 'stick to fifteen days in all for the common cases.

Little trick to not having black teeth: ?? drink the water with a straw charred

This product is not a medicine but a food supplement to be consumed as part of a varied diet. Do not exceed the recommended daily dose. Keep out of reach of young children. Keep away from heat.


For over 20 years, I have advised the use of coal Dr. Belloc distributed in pharmacies since 1873 and with whom I have had excellent results regularly to clean the bowel. Yet there is some time, j 've reported the disappearance of this product in the form of tablets and powder, leaving room for capsules that have two main drawbacks: the small amount of active product of dubious composition capsules are made ​​from GM soya and probably bovine gelatin. Recently, my discovery of the actual properties of powdered activated carbon and its almost universal applications blew me away ... It is appalling to note that in this age where the critical issue of global public health is the intoxication, the incredible efficiency of activated carbon and how it is used, medically known and recognized for over a century, have been overshadowed in the public domain as well as in the general therapeutic information. Stories "medical prestidigitation" . This happens in 1813 A Bertrand, French chemist, made ​​a public demonstration. He holds a vial containing 5 g of arsenic trioxide (1 rounded teaspoon), enough to kill 150 men. He raises his arm and carries the drink to his lips. The inexorable effects of this drug include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, intense burning of the mouth and throat, horrible cramps in the abdomen, rapid dehydration and death. Before the eyes stunned and horrified crowd, Bertrand quietly goes about his business and has no trouble. In 1831, a pharmacist named Touéry Montpellier, performs the same trick, but this time in front of the French aca demic medicine. He swallows 1 gram of strychnine (10 times the dose mor such).

This poison crushes a man in 10 minutes in trôlables incon convulsions and respiratory arrest in the middle of a nervous laugh scary, whose show is forgotten forever. Yet Touéry stay calm and relaxed and has no trouble, to utter amazement teachers. secret? Bertrand and Touéry both had studied the action of charcoal on poisons, particularly rats and both wanted to demonstrate that they had discovered the universal antidote. This could be verified later. Regarding Touéry, it was previously reported that the strychnine coated in 15 g of fine powder of charcoal. He conti nua his research until 1840 Patience and time and it was not until 1984 that the JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association) published two articles on the use of activated charcoal against the em poisonnement theophylline (bronchial dilator) and phenobarbital. A flood of confirmations throughout history. Ebers Papyrus in 1550 BC. already mentioned carbon powder. Hippocrates 400 BC) and Pliny (50 AD) recommend charcoal in the treatment of epilepsy, vertigo, chlorosis and "anthrax" contracted by tanners . In 1793, DM Kehls advises in its memory use charcoal to remove odors from gangrene, purify breath, putrid fevers and bilious all states. In 1773 Scheele explains the phenomenon of gas absorption coal. in 1785 Lowitz shows that coal can discolor many liquids. In 1865, Hunter discovers the performance of coconut charcoal to absorb the gas. In 1862, Stenhouse is the precursor gas masks (at coal) that were used during the 1418 war. In 1846 Garrod published in England, on the neutralization of strychnine given to dogs, cats and rabbits, then experiences the neutralization of opium, morphine , aconitine, ipecac, emetine, veratrine, cantharidin, hemlock, nightshade, delphinium, mercuric dichloride, silver nitrate and lead salts. Rand in 1848 incorporates the experiences of Garrod on humans.

There are more than 40 papers on the subject, established in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Today we have scientific evidence that activated charcoal absorbs viruses, pathogenic bacteria and bacterial toxins the intestine. Recent applications. In hospitals, operating rooms are cleaned by carbon filters to neutralize the gas anesthetics: halothane, ether, cyclopropane, métoxyflurane, proponidide, nitrous oxide ... the products Clean water: chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, permanganate ... all toxic, can be easily removed by carbon filters. But it is also effective for mercury, lead, herbicides, hormones and even some radioactive substances. past 15 years, the activated charcoal to detoxify analgesic, antipyretic is used tricyclic antidepressants, cardiac glycosides, organic solvents, most iatrogenic effects drugs and chemicals. Note the charcoal is insoluble in water. past 10 years, more than 500 medical articles (only in English!) offered more than 10,000 scientific references on the subject. Finally, other researchers have discovered the usefulness of coal in severe. renal Coal is probably the simplest agent decontamination, the more valuable and cheaper than we knew.

But the public and the sick, and even many doctors do not know. Secrets of activated charcoal. It is obtained in two steps. 1- carbonization. was calcined wood by heating at a temperature between 600 and 900 ° in the absence of air. Activation 2. recalcined Wood is the same temperatures, but this time in the presence of water, air, gas or vapor oxidant. This allows the development of a network of micro-pores which are undesirable in real traps molecules. The extrudation of coal dust develops a contacting surface phenomenal: 1 cc of the pulverized coal has a total area of 500 square kilometers and 1 g of charcoal containing 50 000 million pores. This explains its performance: it can absorb 97 times its volume of carbon dioxide, 165 times its volume of sulfur dioxide and 178 times its volume of ammonia ... The work in the intestine. The intestine wall is porous, it perform work by dialysis principle of osmosis. This means that there is an equilibrium between the concentrations of dissolved product on both sides of the wall. So if the intestine is hindered, the network nodes can disgorge therein.

Coal, releasing the intestine, active detoxification of the lymph and blood through osmotic pumping. Dr. Denis Burkitt, after observing the "needs" of thousands of Africans and English, fired surprising conclusions. Rural eliminates 80% of African bowl 32 hours on average. The young Englishman in 72 hours, the old English in 360 hours (15 days!) Why? L'Africain eat mainly foods full fiber and stools weigh between 300 and 500 gr. English, refined regime, daily stool 110 gr. The more an individual is carnivorous and lactivore more stools decrease (up to 50 grams per day). The African, the stools do not know obesity., Appendicitis, gallstones, diverticulitis, hiatal hernia, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, colon cancer, rectum, thrombosis, diabetes , hypoglycemia. Consider that the average transit time is 18 to 48 hours. To measure your own, eat beetroot and take a lap top. must nevertheless consider it normally takes five days to remove 100% of the waste - so that allergic secretions can take up to 6 days after cessation one jack allergen. 's most powerful pump poisons. 's a long list. It concerns: narcotics, dangerous drugs, alkaloids, food additives, agricultural chemicals, heavy metals, toxic gases, detergents, organic solvents, chemotherapy. But are also involved: staphylococcus, salmonella, the smallpox virus, foot and mouth disease, bacterial toxins such as diphtheria, tetanus, botulism, perfringens, decomposition of toxic amines.

But this is not all. There again, snake venom, bee, wasp, hornet, horsefly, scorpion, spider, sea anemone, of Physalia, histamine tuna, shellfish, mycotoxins found in foods because of antibiotics and deadly aflatoxin. How to use activated charcoal? In severe poisoning. The recommended dose is 50 gr adult louse of 1 g / kg for a child. Mix with cold water. It has no taste. taken Repeat 20 to 50 grams of activated charcoal every 4 to 6 hours for one or two days depending on the severity of the poisoning. Theoretical amount of activated charcoal should be at least equal to 8 times the weight of ingested toxic.

The margin of 10 times is desired. However, in suicidal poisonings and comatose subjects, the amount of toxic is unknowable. We then administered between 100 and 120 grams of coal office. Namely a tablespoon contains about 5 grams of coal. Cure drainage. Dosages are obviously flexible according to each case. On average, one can opt for protocol 2 tablespoons to 3 meals for 15 days for an adult (30 grams per day) and continue at 3 tablespoons per day for one month if you wants a deep cellular drainage. For a child, replace tablespoons teaspoons, and stick to 15 days in total for routine cases. Indications for carbothérapie Bad breath (halitosis) - Work of Dr Guinney Los Angeles; Chronic Hiccups; Flatulence - Works of Dr. Hall (USA) Colostomy (ostomy) - Works Cappeler Ruffenach Drs Müller and Halter Bern; Saddles obnoxious and diarrhea nerve - Works Dr. Riese and Damran; Tourista (diarrhea hot countries) . Complications of inadequate rénale- Works Dr. Kopp Moreover, Dr. Yatzidis of Athens University reported in 1961 that 1 gram of carbon can capture: 9 mg of endogenous creatinine, 8 mg uric acid 1.75 mg phenol, 0.30 mg indican, 1 mg of guanidine, urea 35 mg, 0.35 mg of organic acids. Between 4 and 20 months of continuous treatment, with catches of 20 to 50 grams per day resulted in no inconvenience. All intestinal disorders -

Works of Dr. Chevreul -Paris, cholesterol and triglycerides - Works of Dr. Friedmann, generalized pruritus - work Pederion Matter -Czerwingski - Llach. excess bile salts. Krasopoulos Needle Works and De Bari bilirubin and Jaundice in newborns . 4.5 grams of activated charcoal daily work kuenger, Schenck, \ / ahlenkamp, ​​Kuegking, Kuenzer, Ulstrom, Eisenklam, Davis, Yeary, Lee. cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy Alcoholism: It is interesting to know that one gram of coal (l / 2 teaspoon) neutralizes 60 ml of whiskey. A dig for detoxification ... Addiction (smoking - drugs) poisonous mushrooms (see severe intoxication). The carbothérapie does not dispense contact a poison control center. ENT problems and dental hygiene. Will there any drawbacks to prolonged use of coal? Multiple experiments were performed on rats, sheep, and others to see if coal absorbed nutrients and caused deficiencies in the long run. Their blood still retained adequate levels of calcium, copper, zinc, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamins ... and the urine pH remains constant. By cons, it happens that the coal has a constipating effect on some people. One deputy then catch sorbitol. You should also know that coal inhibits oral contraceptives. Finally, coal can be taken during pregnancy.

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