COENZYME Q10: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?
How effective are selected medication from the pharmacy? Is there convincing data on the efficacy of herbal medicines? When to natural remedies work? As it is with the effects of vitamins and minerals? The following contributions Rate medicines and natural remedies on the basis of current scientific publications.
Coenzyme Q10 - effective or ineffective?
What diseases are responsive to a coenzyme Q10 treatment?
Does coenzyme Q10?
Coenzyme Q10 is an endogenous substance. It is partly absorbed from the diet, but also produced by the body itself.
As part of the respiratory chain, coenzyme Q10 is essential eg for the provision of energy in the mitochondria. . High Q10 levels were found in organs with high energy requirements such as heart, liver or lung
Alternative names for coenzyme Q10 are: Vitamin Q10, CoQ10, Q10, ubiquinone, Mitoquinone, Neuquinone.
Coenzyme Q10 is available in Germany as a dietary supplement and is part . many cosmetics
Link: The essence summarized - Coenzyme Q10 succinctly
Coenzyme Q10 and its function in the human body
Chemically, one of the co-enzyme Q10 to the ubiquinones (ubiquinone-10). The participation of Q10 in energy production (glycolysis) emphasizes the central importance of energy metabolism. Regardless of this function acts as an antioxidant coenzyme Q10. It can neutralize free radicals and is one of the most important antioxidants in the human body. Moreover, Q10 essential for the function of cell membranes. Body levels of Q10 is estimated to be about 0.5 to 2 g. The organism produces Coenzyme Q10 is usually in sufficient quantity. The daily diet also provides daily 5 to 10 mg coenzyme Q10. The food is Q10 particularly rich in meat, fish (sardines, mackerel), nuts (eg. B. pistachios), whole grain cereals, legumes, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds and vegetable oils.
When to coenzyme Q10 is applied?
As an accompanying measure therapy in addition to standard therapy of diabetes mellitus, fibromyalgia, dementia, chronic fatigue syndrome, atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease Coenzyme Q10 among others, high blood pressure, heart failure, migraine, Parkinson's disease, applied.
Is there a coenzyme Q10 deficiency in humans?
For some diseases, it seems secondary to come to a coenzyme Q10 deficiency, but a clear deficiency syndrome is not known. A medicament-related Q10 deficiency can be adjusted as a result of treatment with statins (drugs to lower cholesterol levels in the blood). For example, reported a decrease of Q10 levels under treatment with simvastatin and lovastatin in the literature (9, 25, 37). A permanent Q10 deficiency is rare. He should (muscle disease) occur particularly in patients with myopathies. In some studies low Q10 tissue levels have been described in people with heart disease and cancer (42). Based on these findings, researchers have begun to investigate whether CoQ10 could be useful in the supportive treatment of cancer. Patients with Parkinson's disease exhibit A study shows that a more frequent conspicuous coenzyme Q10 deficiency on (24). While in a control group of similar age from about 8 to 9% had an inadequate Q10-supply, the proportion was in PD patients with a Q10 deficiency in 32 to 36%. There are indications that the coenzyme Q10 tissue levels decrease with increasing age. Currently, it is still unclear whether and how the coenzyme Q10 changes body constituents when people get sick.
A study of patients in an ICU confirmed that a CoQ10 deficiency can significantly influence the course of disease. Critically ill patients, especially in the elderly, showed as control subjects (53) were significantly lower CoQ10 levels.
Nevertheless, remains controversial whether supplementation is necessary at all (42).
Dosage of coenzyme Q10
Coenzyme Q10 is in doses of 50 to 400 mg are used. In the majority of studies concerning the efficacy of Q10 dosage between 100 and 300 mg was used. The still considered safe upper limit for daily intake is given as 1200 mg Q10 (42).
Mechanism of action of coenzyme Q10
As an antioxidant, it is intended to limit the harmfulness of abundant accumulating in the mitochondria oxygen radicals. Perhaps the coenzyme Q10 is due to its antioxidant properties but also a special role in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease to. According to studies, oxygen radicals can be at least partly responsible for the destruction of brain cells. Oxidative stress plays an important role in many degenerative diseases. It is therefore reasonable to suggest that the antioxidant effect of coenzyme Q10 in numerous diseases could be supportive effect. For the assumption that a coenzyme Q10 deficiency is responsible for many of the age-related deficits, however, are still lacking scientific evidence.
Studies on the effectiveness
For most indications claimed no convincing evidence from controlled clinical studies on the efficacy of coenzyme Q10 supplementation. For some application areas are at least preliminary evidence for a clinically relevant effect. These include in particular the hypotensive effect of coenzyme Q10 and the positive effects on the diabetic metabolic state. In addition, coenzyme Q10 appears to be effective in reducing migraine attacks. In the recent literature a number of diseases and disorders are called, in which a complementary therapy with coenzyme Q10 measure might prove helpful.
Coenzyme Q10 in addition to conventional treatment of diabetes improves glycemic control and enhanced insulin secretion (23). Q10 reduced in patients with type 1 diabetes, the HbA1c concentration and reduced hyperglycemia. It reduces lipid peroxidation and has a positive effect on the antioxidant system (8). In addition to a reduction in HbA1c concentration under coenzyme Q10 intake was a slight decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure are documented (20). These positive effects on diabetes mellitus according to the authors were not due to the antioxidant effect of coenzyme Q10.
In a placebo-controlled double-blind study of 42 migraine patients over three months under the daily intake of 3 x 100 mg coenzyme Q10 was significant compared to placebo decrease in the frequency of migraine attacks was observed. In 47.6% of migraine patients have a 50% decrease in migraine attacks has been documented (31). In another placebo-controlled study, however, showed a coenzyme Q10 supplementation with 100 mg daily had no significant superiority over a control group. In both groups, a significant decrease in the frequency and duration of migraine attacks was observed, with the effect under Q10 began earlier in time (34). A review of the year 2012, various non-drug treatment options for migraine prevention evaluated (22). As therefore apply in their well-documented effectiveness measures endurance training, various forms of relaxation exercises and also the treatment with coenzyme Q10. Various professional societies currently recommend the use of coenzyme Q10 for the prevention of migraine headaches (13, 28).
Coronary heart disease (CHD) / atherosclerosis
An inadequate supply of coenzyme Q10 appears to have heart disease have an impact on the development of a coronary. In CHD patients showed significantly lower Q10 plasma levels. Conversely, it was found that a high Q10 plasma levels may reduce the risk of CHD, significantly reduced (18). Coenzyme Q10 in combination with garlic shows a positive effect on endothelial function, it improves vascular elasticity and could thus play an important role (17) in the prevention of atherosclerotic lesions. These results were confirmed by a placebo-controlled double-blind study of 65 people. In this study over one year was compared with placebo documented a significant reduction in the progression of atherosclerosis of the coronary vessels under Q10 supplementation (41). In another placebo-controlled double-blind study of 56 patients with ischemic left ventricular dysfunction of the heart was through a daily dose of 300 mg coenzyme Q10, a positive effect can be achieved on endothelial function, presumably mediated by improved mitochondrial function (7).
Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone), it is assumed that it can improve the functional status in (congestive) heart failure. The studies conducted so far on the effects of coenzyme Q10 on the heart failure have yielded inconsistent results. A recently published meta-analysis has analyzed the results of all previous studies and the effectiveness of coenzyme Q10 re-evaluated (44). In particular, it was examined whether objective functional parameters of cardiac performance had improved under the coenzyme Q10 supplementation. Result: Under the intake of coenzyme Q10, there was a significant, albeit low-grade increase in the ejection fraction of the heart (ejection fraction +3.67%). This effect was achieved with an average daily dose of less than 100 mg of coenzyme Q10 for a period of up to 12 weeks. To be remarked that this effect was achieved in patients with less severe heart failure (NYHA class I + II) (44). The results of this study suggest that patients could benefit with a mild form of chronic heart failure of supplementation with coenzyme Q10.
Reduction of UV-induced retinal damage
Coenzyme Q10 could be used as part of eye drops, the retina from UV-induced damage (apoptosis) to protect (21).
Reduction of stress-induced oxidative stress
In an animal study succeeded in showing that Q10 reduces induced by exhaustive exercise oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation and DNA damage prevents the heart (26). In a double-blind crossover study in healthy adults was examined whether an 8-week supplementation with 100 mg daily coenzyme Q10 may decrease due to an exhaustive endurance exercise oxidative stress. As a result, a positive effect of Q10 on various parameters of oxidative stress, in particular a reduced lipid peroxidation (12) showed. Another controlled study of 23 subjects could not confirm these results: no difference in relation to the oxidative stress under the daily intake of 90 mg of Q10 was observed between the groups (27) during exercise. Also taking a higher dosage of coenzyme Q10 (300 mg daily), no positive effect was found on one induced by exercise oxidative stress (1) in a placebo-controlled crossover study in 15 subjects.
High blood pressure / hypertension
The addition of coenzyme Q10 in hypertensive patients has a beneficial effect on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (29). Several small clinical studies have demonstrated a blood pressure lowering effect of supplementation with coenzyme Q10 in patients with essential hypertension (39). In patients with low Q10 levels was a 12-week treatment with 100 mg daily Q10 in addition to the normal antihypertensive therapy, a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure can be documented (from 169 to 148 mmHg). The diastolic blood pressure changed, however not statistically significant (38). In a recently published placebo-controlled crossover study for 12 weeks in 30 patients the effect was 100 mg coenzyme Q10 studied on the 24-hour blood pressure of 2x daily in addition to conventional antihypertensive treatment. As a result, no significant difference of Q10 was compared with placebo (40).
As an important mechanism of action is worth reiterating reduction of oxidative stress by CoQ10 treatment. Diseases in which oxidative stress plays an important role, so most likely to benefit from treatment. For example, in a study of 24 patients with multiple sclerosis show proof that oxidative stress can be significantly reduced by a daily intake of 500 mg of CoQ10, which could have a long term impact on the progression of the disease (52).
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
In a placebo-controlled study in 185 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the efficacy of a high dose of coenzyme Q10 over 9 months was investigated. According to the authors showed coenzyme Q10 inadequate efficacy and overall was not more effective than placebo (16).
That antioxidant agents have an important role in the prevention of dementia was confirmed by a study recently published a German working group. The Commission found that antioxidant vitamins such as vitamin E and vitamin C has a role in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease. Also appears to the progression of dementia of vitamin C and beta-carotene status to be influenced. However, the researchers found no link between the coenzyme Q10 status and progression of dementia (36).
May be the risk for the development of depression is also affected by the supply of antioxidant substances. It consists Studies show a link between low blood levels of vitamin E, Coenzyme Q10 and zinc and the occurrence of depression (32).
Due to its antioxidant effect comes Q10, as an item of creams and ointments particular importance to. Studies have shown that coenzyme Q10 protects the keratinocytes in the skin from UVA-induced damage (43), possibly by increasing the glutathione activity (14).
Chronic fatigue syndrome
In patients with chronic fatigue syndrome CoQ10 may reduce fatigue and increase endurance. (51).
Supportive care in cancer
Initial studies suggest that coenzyme Q10 may reduce the organ toxicity of chemotherapy within the tumor treatment. In an animal study could be reduced by Q10 administration nephrotoxicity of cyclosporin A (15). Also, a disease caused by doxorubicin cardiotoxicity can possibly be prevented by a Q10-treatment, without the antineoplastic activity of doxorubicin to decrease (11). Clinical and preclinical studies suggest that Q10, the heart could protect against the damage caused by chemotherapy with anthracycline toxic damage (42). Coenzyme Q10 may be adapted to reduce the induced by chemotherapy, chronic fatigue syndrome (42).
Compared to control subjects was seen in patients with fibromyalgia, increased oxidative stress with decreased Q10 tissue levels. It also found a clear correlation between oxidative stress and the severity of headaches. The treatment of fibromyalgia patients with coenzyme Q10 resulted in a normalization of biochemical parameters and a significant improvement of headache (5, 6).
A Japanese study have indicated that patients with fibromyalgia syndrome disturbances in cholesterol metabolism, which respond well to 12 respond wöchtige treatment with 100 mg of CoQ10 daily. In addition, the CoQ10 administration improved the chronic fatigue in patients with fibromyalgia (48).
The American Parkinson Study Group found years ago evidence of a slowing of disease progression under high-dose therapy with coenzyme Q10 (33). However, the study showed significant methodological flaws. Regular intake of coenzyme Q10 does not improve the symptoms of Parkinson's patients. To the results of a German research group. They investigated the effect of coenzyme Q10 in a randomized controlled study of 131 people with confirmed Parkinson's disease. The subjects received either 100 mg 3x daily Nanoquinon (corresponding to 1200 mg coenzyme Q10) or placebo. Although the Q10 blood levels increased during the study period, there was no improvement in activities of daily living and motor skills in patients (35). A Cochrane meta-analysis (19) comes after the evaluation of a total of 4 studies with 452 Parkinson's patients to the conclusion that could affect the activities of daily living positively with a daily treatment of 1200 mg coenzyme Q10 over a period of 16 months in particular.
Infertility - restriction in male fertility
Coenzyme Q10 was significantly more effective in men with unexplained oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (low and too few motile sperm, malformed sperm). In a placebo-controlled study of 228 men over 26 weeks led to take daily 200 mg coenzyme Q10 for improving sperm density, sperm motility and sperm morphology (30).
Coenzyme Q10 in Sports
It was always believed that a CoQ10 supplementation may improve athletic performance. Studies show, however, that neither the endurance nor the training adaptation can be improved by CoQ10 administration. By contrast, the antioxidant mechanisms completely untrained benefit in their performance of a concomitant CoQ10 intake (54).
Coenzyme Q10 in the treatment of statin-induced muscle pain
The drug class of statins (lovastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin, atorvastatin) is used for lowering high cholesterol in the blood. Statins inhibit by blocking the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase in addition to the cholesterol synthesis, the biosynthesis of ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10). It was therefore suggested that a simultaneous coenzyme Q10 intake undesirable deficiency can be prevented. Numerous controlled studies that it comes under statin administration to a significant deterioration of the Q10-Statuses (25). Proponents of statin therapy argue that this side effect was not clinically relevant in view of the significant reduction of cardiovascular risks during treatment with statins. This relationship was examined in a large study of 7924 patients on statin therapy. It was found that muscle symptoms occurred more frequently with simultaneous statin treatment and beyond the daily lives of patients more impaired than previously thought. In particular, under physical stress, such as during athletic training, it can lead to muscle disorders (3). Overall, 10.5 percent of patients reported muscle complaints that were so intense sometimes that it restricted the activities of daily living and led to additional intake of analgesics. That Q10 supplementation with continuing statin intake reduces muscle pain, could be detected in a smaller study with 32 patients. While in the comparison group, the muscle complaints over the next 30 days increased slightly, with the coenzyme Q10 treatment a significant reduction in muscle pain could be documented (4). Could, however, in another study in statin-induced muscle pain during treatment with Q-10 no better efficacy as documented in the placebo administration (2).
In a recent study (double blind study) in 60 patients with statin-associated myopathy was observed a significant improvement in symptoms compared to placebo (45) under a three-month supplementation with CoQ10 + selenium. Specifically, a decrease of muscle pain, muscle weakness and muscle stiffness could be documented. The additional selenium administration had no effect on the symptoms. Under the placebo, the symptoms did not change significantly.
A further study confirmed these findings. In 28 patients (mean age: 60.6 years) with different statin dose, a positive effect was documented on muscle pain and muscle weakness after 6 months of CoQ10 supplementation (47).
Among statin treatment (eg simvastatin) may in particular at elderly patients become impaired exercise capacity. That this diminishing fitness may be due to a CoQ10 deficiency, this data suggest a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study of 20 physically active individuals who received a stable dose of a statin. Result: In a 6-week daily intake of 200 mg of CoQ10, the muscular performance improved compared to placebo ingestion (46).
Adverse effects of coenzyme Q10
Documented side effects of Q10 include nausea, abdominal pain, rash, dizziness, sensitivity to light, irritability, fatigue, headaches and heartburn.
coenzyme Q10 may increase the risk of blood clots or bleeding, an interaction with warfarin (vitamin K antagonist) can are not excluded.
Due to its antioxidant properties coenzyme Q10 is used in a variety of diseases as a supporting therapy. Although available from controlled studies strong evidence for the positive effect of supplementation with coenzyme Q10, applies to most areas of application recommended that the effectiveness of coenzyme Q10 is not clearly documented. Conflicting study results are eg prior to hypotensive effect in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and for the prevention of migraine headaches. Mostly positive results were found in the supportive treatment of diabetes mellitus, heart failure and coronary heart disease (CHD) with coenzyme Q10. But here are missing larger studies to confirm these findings. First evidence for a positive effect are in male infertility and the fibromyalgia syndrome. Although there is much evidence from controlled studies showing a correlation between muscle pain and statin intake, currently may yet have a general recommendation for supplementation of coenzyme Q10 in patients receiving a statin to lower cholesterol, are pronounced. Nevertheless, the occurrence of muscle pain in the context of statin treatment, a coenzyme Q10 administration is justified.
In addition to the role in the energy supply of the human body acts Q10 also an antioxidant and destroys free radicals that would otherwise cause damage. Especially organs with high energy throughput as the heart, muscles and brain are seriously affected when the coenzyme Q10 is not sufficiently available. According to recent studies, these institutions benefit in the event of a disease especially of coenzyme Q10 gifts. However, there is still a need for research.
Since the heart is working nonstop, it requires a lot of energy. This is used by the mitochondria , the "powerhouses of the cell" delivered, which are particularly abundant in the cells of the heart muscle. The production of energy depends, among other things, on the available amount of coenzyme Q10.
Various studies provide correlations between heart problems and Q10 deficiency fixed: Healthy, well-working heart usually had in all studies a sufficient amount of Q10 in the tissue. According to reports, the intake of coenzyme Q10 supports the successful treatment of various heart conditions.
In the treatment of acute myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, ischemic heart disease (= blockage in the coronary arteries, such as angina ) and heart failure in the final stages doses between 50 and 120 mg of Q10 per day could relieve the symptoms and reduce complications. A large study of 2664 patients with congestive heart failure who received 50-150 mg Q10, showed improvement in the following symptom areas: lack of oxygen (cyanosis) 78.1%, edema 78.6%, pulmonary noise 77.8%, enlargement of the liver 49.3%, shortness of breath 52.7%, palpitations 75.4%, sweating 79.8%, arrhythmias 63.4%, insomnia 662.8%, vertigo 73.1% and nocturia 53.6%. In more than half of the patients more than 3 parameters were improved. This meant a significant improvement in quality of life.
The chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin against cancer is used as a side effect caused heart damage. In clinical studies, coenzyme Q10 protect cancer -patients, before this side effect.
The central nervous system
Nervous system disorders such as Parkinson's disease or Shaking palsy brain dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease are probably directly related to the by free radicals induced oxidative stress. Pathological processes also interfere with energy production in the mitochondria of the cell. Coenzyme Q10 acts as "free radical scavengers" and reduced oxidative stress. Therefore, it is assumed that it may play an important role in the treatment of diseases of the nervous system. It promotes the production of energy and so stimulates the metabolism. Theoretical manner should benefit Alzheimer's patients of coenzyme Q10 strong clinical studies that measure the benefit directly, but remain to be seen.
In a placebo -controlled, double-blind clinical trial coenzyme Q10 (oral) tested against Parkinson's disease. All used doses (300 mg, 600 mg, 1200 mg daily) were well tolerated. The effect of Q10 with the highest dose was most pronounced. CoQ10 appears to delay the progression of the disease. However, are confirmation of even more studies.
In an animal experiment with mice at the Huntington's disease suffered (a genetically induced neuronal decay), was a combination of remacemide (a drug against Huntington's disease Q10 survival rates increased by 32%) and coenzyme. Furthermore, the motor has been improved as well as delay the weight loss and degeneration of nerve cells in the brain. In a 30-month clinical study in humans, the effect could not be confirmed. So the specimen Q10 slowed in the first academic year, the deterioration by only 13 percent.
Coenzyme Q10 is required for normal functioning of the muscles. If too little energy provided muscle function is compromised. In the muscular dystrophies and Cytopathien the reduced energy supply is due to a defect in the "powerhouses of the cell" ( mitochondria triggered). In double-blind studies have shown a positive effect with a Q10-containing dietary supplements showed.
Another double-blind study was conducted in patients who had impaired mitochondrial function in the brain. Since the muscles can not be controlled in this case, which also leads to muscle weakness. By Q10 supplementation (150 mg Q10 for 6 months) of Q10 deficiency has been eliminated and muscle strength increased significantly.
Preliminary results show a positive effect: In a double-blind, placebo -controlled pilot study with 42 patients, a significant reduction in frequency of attacks could be achieved. Was administered three times daily 100 mg Q10 for a period of 3 months. The study data are only valid for the used liquid formulation with Q10 nanoparticles and can not be generalized.
Coenzyme Q10 prevents the oxidation of LDL cholesterol , and at higher doses could thus an important role in the prevention of arteriosclerosis play.
Support for the medication for the reduction of blood fats
Coenzyme Q10 is related to treatment with cholesterol-lowering drugs such as statins of importance. These cholesterol lowering drugs inhibit the enzyme (HMG CoA reductase), which not only for the formation of cholesterol is required, but also for Coenzyme Q10. As undesirable side effect the body's production of coenzyme Q10 is therefore reduced. This in turn damages organs that consume a lot of energy, especially the heart and brain. By the addition of Q10 (240 mg / day), the state of the patient normalized statin.
Fortunately not affect the Q10 effect of statins. Theoretically, the replacement of Q10 is recommended especially when statins are taken over a longer period. Because not yet sufficient data a standard supply of statin patients is not generally advocated with Q10 of experts, however.
Both type I diabetes, and type II diabetes, the increased blood sugar affects the body and causes severe damage over time. These include: kidney damage to dialysis, heart attack, stroke, poor circulation to the amputation of extremities, retinal diseases including blindness and nerve damage.
The major effects of coenzyme Q10 as energy activation and stabilization of cell membranes can also prevent the late complications of the body due to diabetes. In addition, the cells responsible for the production of be insulin in the pancreas are responsible, protected by coenzyme Q10.
As the results of a double-blind and placebo -controlled clinical trial with 74 type 2 diabetes patients showed improved with the gift Q10 blood pressure and control blood sugar.
Tumors / cancer
In approximately 20% of cancer patients are particularly low serum concentrations -Q10 before. It still was found in malignant tumors much less than in benign tumors Q10.
The data relating to Q10 and tumor diseases are as yet very incomplete. However, there is the possibility that a reduced cellular Q10 concentration can promote the risk of the occurrence of cancerous diseases.
As measurements showed, in many patients with low gum disease Q10 concentrations are serum available. A clinical trial for this indication has not yet been performed to our knowledge.
Lots of light caused in the skin known as photoaging. Experiments show that Q10 is destroyed by UV light, ozone and other harmful influences and Q10 content in the skin of subjects decreases. Then increases the oxidative damage.
Scientific publications from the industrial environment show that Q10 aging processes of the skin soften and can reduce oxidative processes. In addition, the production of enzymes to be inhibited, affecting the strength of the skin (so-called. Collagenases). Confirmation of data from independent (non-industrial) sources and clinical trials would be desirable.
Areas of application
for the dietary treatment of migraine
Coenzyme Q10 is normally added to the usual diet. An additional supply is considered by experts as not needed. However, there are against the inclusion of small amounts (10 to more than 30 mg coenzyme Q10) as a dietary supplement no health concerns (Federal Institute for Health Protection of Consumers).
The health benefits deemed not sufficiently proved, especially in statements such as "increase the performance and health" and "strengthening the immune system". The problem with many studies is the poor quality. From so-called "observational studies", sponsored by the manufacturer, one can only expect information about the spectrum of side effects of a drug, but not about its effectiveness. Independent studies would be desirable.
For these diseases (heart disease, heart failure, headache, muscle weakness, Parkinson's disease, support of blood lipid lowering drugs, diabetes) coenzyme Q10 might be useful if possible. This show first clinical studies. But more data are needed for definitive statements.
Applications divided by effectiveness
Effectiveness according to experience SheetSheet
There are numerous indications of a long history of use in folk medicine and in medical alternative medicine that can accept an activity. However, so far all the criteria are not met, which is necessary for a full evidentiary force. If there are clinical studies, the results did not unequivocally convinced.
Age-related complaints, anti-aging
Heart disease (CHD, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis , heart failure, heart rhythm disorders, prevention), supplement with drug therapy
Muscle weakness, certain muscle diseases, mitochondria -Defekt, muscular dystrophy
Diabetes (diabetes), prevention of late complications (prevention), improve blood pressure (hypertension) and blood sugar levels
Unsecured effectiveness Sheet
The evidence from traditional application or laboratory tests are inconclusive and do not go beyond an experimental status. There are no correct or positive clinical studies.
Nervous diseases, Huntington (questionable)
Compensate for the side effects of blood lipid-lowering agents (HMG CoA-reductase type inhibitors)