JOJOBA OIL: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?
Jojoba ( Simmondsia chinensis ), more precisely the Jojoba is the only species of the monotypic genus Simmondsia , the only genus of the family of Simmondsiaceae. So there is only this species in the family. It belongs to the order of clove-like (Caryophyllales). It is a useful plant . The name comes from the language of the Tohono O'Odham and is originally "ho-ho-ba" pronounced.
Contents [ Hide ]
1.1 Vegetative characteristics
1.2 inflorescences and flowers
1.3 Fruits and seeds
1.4 Ingredients and chromosome number
6 more photos
7.1 Notes and references
8 External links
Description [ Edit ]
Vegetative characteristics [ Edit ]
Jojoba grows as evergreen, richly branched shrub , whose stature heights vary from 0.5 to 4 meters, usually 2 to 2.5 meters. In a natural environment, the shrubs can be about 200 years old.  He has taproots which can penetrate about 6 feet deep in the ground. Abnormal Secondary growth occurs by a concentric cambium. The light brown wood is hard. The bark is smooth.
The opposite, short-stalked leaves are simple, leathery, entire and 2-4 inches long. Anomocytische stomata are located in approximately the same number on both leaf surfaces. Stipules absent.
Male flowers of jojoba
Capsule fruits on the branch
Inflorescences and flowers [ Edit ]
Simmondsia chinensis is a dioecious getrenntgeschlechtige ( dioecious ) plants . The male flowers are terminally together several and the female flowers are usually solitary in the leaf axils. The small, unisexual, radial symmetry flowers are usually fünfzählig (rarely four or sechszählig). The male flowers are yellow and 3-4 millimeters in size. The male flowers contain two circles with usually five (rarely four or six) of free, fertile stamens . The female flowers are small and light green. Three carpels are a top permanent, dreifächerigen ovary adherent. Each ovary compartment contains a suspended, anatrope, bitegmische ovule . Three free stylus are present in the papillary scars. The pollination is carried on the wind or by insects. The sepals of the female flowers are durable and enlarge until fruit maturity at 10 to 20 millimeters.
Illustration of jojoba seeds
Fruits and seeds [ Edit ]
There are ovoid, lokulizidale, dreifächerige, usually one-seeded fruit capsule formed. The capsule fruit is ripe 3 to 6 months after fertilization and open to release the seeds. The brown, wrinkled seeds have about the size of a small olive. The tall, straight embryo is well developed.
Ingredients and number of chromosomes [ Edit ]
Simmondsia chinensis contains proanthocyanidins. There are calcium oxalate crystals accumulate . The embryo or cotyledons in the seeds contain cyanogenic glycosides and liquid waxes from esters with high molar mass, there are mono- carboxylic acid esters of acetic acid , as storage compounds. 
The haploid chromosome set consists of 13 chromosomes . In the somatic cells of the plant is tetraploid ago, the chromosome number is so 4 x 13 = 52nd 
Occurrence [ Edit ]
The Jojoba grows in semi-deserts and deserts . He is in Mexico , California and Arizona in the area of Sonora native -Wüste. Its botanical epithet chinensis is based on a mistake, because a botanist seeds mistake in the initial determination with samples of other plant species from the Chinese Empire muddled. The jojoba shrub is native to China.
Jojoba is commercially except in the USA nor in Israel , Argentina , Peru and Australia cultivated. Their ecological importance lies in the protection against soil erosion and the creation of a favorable microclimate .
The populated by Jojoba habitats ranging from warm temperate deserts , with little or no frost on thorn forest to dry forest . The annual rainfall was between 200 and 1100 mm, mm, in extreme cases, less than 125 tolerated. The best growing conditions are about 300 mm. With precipitation of about 75 mm Jojoba grows up to 1 meter high, with rainfall of 250 to 400 mm, it reaches up to 5 meters Height. The average annual temperature may 16-26 ° C. Jojoba tolerates full sun and temperatures between 0 and 47 ° C. For mature shrubs, the temperature can drop to -10 ° C, but seedlings are sensitive to frost already slightly below 0 ° C. The floors can have pH values of from 7.3 to 8.2. Jojoba grows best in well-drained soil, coarse, well-ventilated desert soils that are neutral to basic, in which phosphorus occurs. 
Jojoba plantation with wide intervals between the rows
Cultivation [ Edit ]
The germination of jojoba seeds is after six months 99% and after 11 years still 38% for open storage. The best germination success lie in basic sand at temperatures from 27 to 38 ° C. The cultivation of cuttings has the advantage that one can reproduce the exact amount of male and female specimens; the Bewurzlungszeit lasts about 38 days. 
Hedges are planted with 4 to 5 meters, 2 meters, respectively and gap spacing between the individual plants. Ideal fertile ground is a pH greater than 5, less than 5% of the plants should be male, to ensure pollination; for example, 500 female and 50 male specimens per hectare, but it can also, in another method of cultivation up to 2500 copies per hectare are planted. apomictic plants are known, this would reduce the need for Bestäuberpflanzen. The first yield can be achieved after 3 to 5 years, the income maximum is 12 years. 
Terms [ Edit ]
Are harvested, the "nut-like" seed , which a liquid at room temperature wax (ie it is not, as with other vegetable oils to a rich oil)  contain, at a level of about 50%. This high-quality vegetable wax is used for cosmetic and industrial purposes. It also contains Pro vitamin A and vitamin E , maintains its beneficial fatty acids the skin and is suitable for all skin types. It protects against dryness without a greasy film on the skin to leave (since they're not an oil), it is easy anti-inflammatory and smells very weak. It is used as a massage oil and hair care. Jojoba oil has a natural sun protection factor of three to four and is therefore used as a base oil for suntan oils. In the manufacture of self-made cosmetics, it is often used because of its beneficial properties. So jojoba oil is very resistant to oxidation and contributes to the stabilization of oil mixtures at, increases the elasticity of the skin and protects it reliably long-lasting moisture loss. In addition, it behaves in emulsions as a bodying agent and Koemulgator. Because it spreads relatively slowly, it is particularly well suited for use in eye care products.
In industrial applications, it is the starting material of many lubricant for precision instruments and based on care waxes for furniture - and car polishes . Because it is a wax, it is highly temperature resistant. It oxidizes and does not gum comparable to a vegetable oil. Particularly noteworthy is the fact that the jojoba wax is a high quality replacement for the banned spermaceti is the earlier of sperm whales was obtained.
First commercial cultivation experiments were carried out in 1943 in the United States, as a result of the Second World War, alternative raw material resources were sought. Could establish itself on the market, the production only in the seventies of the twentieth Century . Experimented successfully, including in Arabia , even with the application of eco-friendly because of natural sulfur-free fuel for diesel engines ; only the addition of some methanol is necessary. Here could be opened in the coming decades, a commercial niche. Since jojoba wax is a renewable resource, the emitted during combustion is carbon dioxide bound at sustainable economy by growing plants and thus contributes not warming at.
Of the indigenous peoples , the seeds were roasted and boiled to obtain the liquid wax, and processed into foods such remedies.
Another ingredient of the seed is Simmondsin . Seed powder with high Simmondsin content was added in early 2007 food and particularly praised. This food additive is forbidden by law in Europe. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment advises to take them off, because the seeds have been shown in animal studies to be highly toxic. 
Systematics [ Edit ]
The first publication of this kind took place in 1822 under the name Buxus chinensis by Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link in Enumeratio Plantarum: Horti regii botanici berolinensis altera , 2, p 386 The genus name Simmondsia and the name Simmondsia californica was in 1844 by Thomas Nuttall in London Journal of Botany , Volume 3, page 400, Table 16 published.  The valid name Simmondsia chinensis was in 1907 by Camillo Karl Schneider in Illustrated Handbook of Hardwood customer published, 2, p 141.  Thus, Buxus chinensis Link and Simmondsia californica Nutt. synonyms for Simmondsia chinensis (Link) CKSchneid. A synonym for Simmondsia Nutt. is Brocchia Mauri ex ten.  The genus Simmondsia was arranged a long time in or near Buxaceae provided as a separate family Simmondsiaceae, the Buxaceae. It also has its own order Simmondsiales within the Hamamelididae (Takhtajan 1997) was set up. Today this is one monotypic genus in the order of Caryophyllales . The Simmondsiaceae family was in 1899 by Philippe Van Tieghem in Just's botanical annual report drawn up, 25 (2), p 422.  The genus name Simmondsia honors the British botanist Thomas Williams Simmonds († 1804 in Trinidad).
The cosmetics market offers a large selection of creams over lotions to body oils. Many of them act only by the addition of various chemicals which can cause severe damage particularly on sensitive skin. But even people with normal skin can damage by chemical additives, preservatives and various dyes and fragrances your skin permanently. Natural products are more popular than ever for this very reason and create a whole new market. In addition to argan oil, almond oil and similar products, also jojoba oil face care is one of the developments that bring many positive attributes for the user.
A small all-rounder
First, it is important to know about the jojoba oil face care that it is not is an oil in the usual sense. Rather, jojoba oil is a kind of wax that just as well behave. This means that it is hardened by heat in a cold environment and becomes liquid. These properties make the jojoba oil to a long lasting product and a versatile ingredient for various cosmetics. In addition, the oil contains many valuable fatty acids that nourish the skin, making it soft, supple and resistant. Since jojoba oil quickly absorbed into the skin and has many positive features, it is perfectly suited for use as a cosmetic agent, and as an additive for just this.
The extraction of jojoba oil runs over the seeds of the jojoba bush that grows in hot and dry areas. Therefore, the jobbing plant is grown in respective countries, such as Argentina. The price of jojoba oil is just the measure of a good vegetable oil, which would be used for the kitchen. This also pure use is not a problem and crashes woman immediately in expenses. As with other skin care oils, such as argan oil, jojoba oil can be personalized with do well in the pure state many things.
The simplest application of the oil is rubbed into the skin. To get the valuable ingredients instantly to where they are needed and the light massage also promotes blood circulation. Not only for the face, but also for the care of the hands or other parts of the body rendering this application. For intensive care, even a scrub can be made from the jojoba oil. The mixing with sea salt creates an effective exfoliation, dead skin cells at the same time removes the skin and nourishes. Since jojoba oil helps the skin to retain moisture, is the use of particularly in winter when the air is cold and dry, very practical and effective. Accordingly, people should avoid as far as possible with oily skin on the application.
More than Skin Care
In addition to jojoba oil skin care, natural product can also be used for other purposes. As an ingredient in many cosmetics, it is a valuable supplier of fatty acids and vitamins. Also Pur rubbed into the hair tips, the oil may exert its effect and thus acts against dry and brittle hair. By the natural light protection factor of the oil, it is also suitable for protection against UV radiation, and helps to maintain the natural tanning of the skin for extended period of time.