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Evening Primrose Oil: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?

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EVENING PRIMROSE OIL: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?

Botanical Name: Oenothera biennis, Onagraceae family.
Other names: primrose oil, primrose oil Vespers.
Part used: seeds.

The oil of evening primrose seed is a source of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). The LGA is part of the family of omega-6. For more information, see our fact sheet Omega-3 and Omega-6.

Indications
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Potential Effectiveness
Treat rheumatoid arthritis.
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Uncertain effectiveness
Treat eczema, mastalgia, diabetic neuropathy.
Ineffective
Relieve symptoms of premenstrual syndrome.
Recognized use
Treat eczema.
For details, see Research on Evening Primrose Oil.

Dosage of evening primrose oil
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Evening primrose oil trade is usually normalized between 8% and 10% gamma-linolenic acid and occurs most often in the form of capsules of 500 mg, 1000 mg or 1300 mg. It is generally recommended to take 2 or 3 times a day with meals. The benefits of evening primrose oil can take 3 to 6 months before to be felt.

Rheumatoid arthritis

Take 5 g to 6 g of evening primrose oil per day. It takes several weeks, sometimes up to four months for the effect to be done fully felt.
Description of evening primrose oil
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The extracted oil tiny seeds of the evening primrose ( Oenothera biennis ), a North American plant of origin. This oil contains the gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), a fatty acid omega-6. The AGL is directly related to the production of prostaglandins, Series 1 (PGE 1) at the expense of the Series 2 (PGE2). For this purpose, so it would reduce the mechanisms that trigger inflammation .

A healthy body produces GLA it needs from linoleic acid derived from polyunsaturated vegetable oils: sunflower, safflower, corn, soy, etc. However, in some situations, the body would have difficulty produce GLA diabetes, eczema, premenstrual syndrome, high cholesterol, excess alcohol, etc. This can also occur if a shortage of certain vitamins or minerals, especially zinc. Hence the importance of the evening primrose oil contains GLA ready for use. Note that the causal link between a reduced rate of FFA and development of these states is not established.

The GLA is rarely found in large quantities in our diet. In addition to evening primrose oil , are also found in borage oil (22%), oil and blackcurrant seed (18%) and hemp seed oil (2%). As for animal food, offal contain small quantities.

Supplements of evening primrose oil are usually from a cold pressed oil to preserve the fragile polyunsaturated fatty acids it contains. Several manufacturers also add some vitamin E in their supplements to protect the oil against oxidation.

History of evening primrose oil
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Native Americans ate the roots and seeds of the evening primrose for food. Externally, the plant was used to treat bruises, hemorrhoids and skin diseases. They also employed orally to relieve respiratory problems and arthritis. Today is only the oil from the seeds we used.

Evening primrose (oil)The discovery in recent years, the physiological role of essential fatty acids has the primrose oil featured. Although not the only source of GLA trade, its oil is the most common and most popular distance; it contains around 8% GLA. The vast majority of GLA supplements used in clinical trials was of evening primrose oil supplements.

The evening primrose oil brand Efamol® has been officially recognized for the treatment of eczema and mastalgia in Britain, where she was issued a prescription. However, this approval was withdrawn in 2002 after the authorities ruled that evidence of the effectiveness of evening primrose oil were insufficient. However, it is still recognized in many countries for the treatment of eczema , including Germany, Italy, Spain, Ireland, Denmark, South Africa and Australia.

Research on Evening Primrose Oil
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Health Canada makes the following allegations about evening primrose oil 42

A source of essential fatty acids for the maintenance of good health.
A source of omega-6 fatty acids for maintaining good health.
Linoleic acid source for the maintenance of good health.
Potential Effectiveness Rheumatoid arthritis. A meta-analysis update in 2011 1 , concluded that despite some conflicting data, the overall evidence points to a moderate beneficial effect of oils containing GLA. Three studies (271 subjects in total) have yielded conflicting results in terms of the treatment of this disease. However, in two of these tests, we used olive oil as a placebo, which may have contributed to bias the results, the authors of a meta-analysis published in 2005 2 . They conclude So, by amalgamating the results obtained with borage oil (another source of GLA), that AGL may be helpful in reducing symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.

Uncertain effectiveness Eczema. effectiveness of evening primrose oil to treat eczema is controversial. Clinical trials, often small-scale, have yielded conflicting results. Same for the meta-analyzes 3-6 : 2 of them have concluded that evening primrose oil might be useful for the treatment of eczema, but two others that examined the AGL , have instead found inconclusive evidence.

In another meta-analysis, published in 2006, specifically on the product and Efamol® based on 26 trials published or not, this product can be helpful in relieving many of the symptoms of eczema. The authors, one of whom is employed by the manufacturer Efamol, indicate that the beneficial effect of evening primrose oil takes 6 to 8 weeks to be felt. According to them, this effect is reduced by the frequent use of corticosteroids, which may explain the inconclusive results of some tests 7 . Note that in an essay published in 2008, carried out in India on 50 subjects, the evening primrose oil taken during five months was significantly more effective than placebo in relieving symptoms of subjects with eczema 8 .

Recognized use The authors of the meta-analysis mentioned above 7 , the evening primrose oil is a recognized treatment against eczema in Germany, Italy, Spain, Ireland, Denmark, South Africa, Australia , New Zealand, Turkey, Korea, Hong Kong and Pakistan.

Uncertain effectiveness Mastalgia (breast pain). Data is far from convincing in this regard. Two clinical trials with placebo have yielded conflicting results regarding the relief of breast pain associated with PMS 10 . Furthermore, two subsequent trials with placebo having worn at all of 675 women were inconclusive 11.12 . However, in a more recent controlled trial in Egypt, bromocriptine combination and evening primrose oil reduced the symptoms of women with cyclic mastalgia 13 (bromocriptine is a drug used against some premenstrual disorders). In the latest study, despite a reduction in symptoms in some participants, the results were not statistically significant 14 .

Uncertain effectiveness Diabetic neuropathy. This complication of diabetes is a gradual degeneration of nerves which can be extremely painful. The effectiveness of evening primrose oil for relief is uncertain. Indeed, the two placebo-controlled studies (106 subjects in total) that have any positive results date from the 1990s: the subjects took 360 mg of GLA 16 or 480 mg of GLA 17 per day for at least 6 months. A subsequent trial of 51 subjects, however, has been inconclusive 18 .A synthesis published in 2003 found insufficient evidence, but the authors state that the evening primrose oil may be helpful in cases of diabetic neuropathy light . They also suggest the treatment as adjuvant in moderate neuropathy, where the effectiveness of conventional drugs is only partial 19 . According to them, a treatment of at least six months is necessary and requires taking September to December 500 mg capsules of evening primrose oil per day.

Ineffective Premenstrual syndrome. Authors of a synthesis published in 1996 scrutinized 7 double-blind trials with placebo. They found no evidence of the effect of evening primrose oil in relieving symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. Indeed, the methodology of most of these trials was poor and the 2 most controlled studies have been negative 10 . In 2009, the authors of a systematic review of complementary treatment of premenstrual syndrome came to the same conclusion 20 .

Miscellaneous
Depending on an essay published in 2008, evening primrose oil can relieve the discomfort of dry eyes associated with wearing soft contact lenses 21 .

In preliminary studies, the administration of evening primrose oil has shown positive results in patients with Raynaud's disease 22 and Huntington 23 .

It was also found that taking evening primrose oil could help reduce risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the elderly 24 .

In the case of the menopause 25.26 , osteoporosis 27,28 of chronic fatigue syndrome 29,30 and Sjögren syndrome 31-34 , or the results have been inconclusive or conflicting. Same conclusion regarding asthma 35.36 , schizophrenia 37 and Disorder Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 38.39 .

Precautions
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Epilepsy patients with schizophrenia: no link
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Between 1981 and 1983, 5 cases of epilepsy temporal have been reported in schizophrenic who had consumed the AGL . A British researcher has scanned these 5 cases and concluded in 2007 that the link between the decision and AGL epilepsy was unfounded 40 .

Adverse effects
Of great safety at recommended dosages, the evening primrose oil can sometimes cause mild nausea, upset stomach or head and loose stools. A dose reduction should eliminate these drawbacks.
Interactions
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With plants or supplements
None known.
With drugs
The frequent use of corticosteroids may reduce the potentially beneficial effect of evening primrose oil on eczema 7 .
Anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents: an essay on animals indicates that evening primrose oil has antiplatelet and anticoagulant effect. Evening primrose oil could increase the effect of drugs such as clopidogrel, dipyridamole, ticlopidine, warfarin.

On the shelves
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Purchase products from a cold pressed oil and spiked with some vitamin E. These two elements protect valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.

Article Wiki Closed - EVENING PRIMROSE OIL: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?
asked Aug 13, 2014 by Lancomega Level (10,245 points)
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