EVENING PRIMROSE OIL: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?
The Common Evening Primrose ( Oenothera biennis ), also known as Common Evening Primrose called, is a plant species of the genus of the evening primrose ( Oenothera ) within the family of the Onagraceae (Onagraceae). It is one of Central Europe's naturalized neophytes  , since it around 1620 as an ornamental plant of North America after Europe was introduced. She is now so widely distributed in Europe, that it is perceived by most people as a native species.
Contents [ Hide ]
1.1 Appearance and leaf
1.2 Inflorescence and flower
1.3 Fruit and seed
2.1 flowers Ecology
2.3 The spread of seeds
6.1 used as a food
6.2 use as a medicinal plant
6.3 Use in cosmetics
8.1 Notes and references
9 External links
Description [ Edit ]
Taproot compared to a carrot
Rosette of leaves the first year
Fourfold, radiärsymmetrische bloom
Flowering of the page
Appearance and leaf [ Edit ]
The Common Evening Primrose is a biennial herbaceous plant , the plant height of 0.8 to 1.8  , reaching up to 2 meters in ideal location.  It forms the first year one lying on the ground rosette of fleshy taproot . In the second year it rises a green or reddish instantaneous water in the lower range, ungetupfter Stem  , this is simple or sparsely branched and densely to sparsely hairy  .
The undergraduate and alternate distributed on the stem standing leaves are sessile or short-stalked and light to medium green. The leaf blades of the basal leaves are 10 to 30 inches long and usually 2-5 inches wide. The leaf blades of the stem leaves are narrow-lanceolate to elliptic wrong with pointed or sharply pointed Spreitenbasis and pointed upper end at a length of 5 to 22 centimeters and a width of usually 1.5 to 5 (1-6) centimeters. The edge of the stem leaves incised to almost smooth, often lobed near the Spreitenbasis  . There are a red midrib  and indistinct lateral nerves available. 
Inflorescence and flower [ Edit ]
In a mostly unbranched, thick, aged men  inflorescence on a straight, glandular hairy inflorescence axis  , many flowers are borne. In the armpit of a supporting sheet depending sits a flower. The flower buds are green  .
The hermaphrodite flower is radial symmetry and fourfold with a double perianth . The flower cups (Hypanthium) is rarely to 2, usually 2.5 to 4 inches long. On it are the sepals and petals.  The four green to yellow more or less, rarely more or less red  sepals are fused usually 1.2 to 2.2, rarely up to 2.8 inches long and the downwardly curved  sepals are 1.5 to 3 millimeters long. The four petals are usually 1.2 to 2.5, rarely up to 3 inches long  and 2.4 to 3.5 inches wide  . The petals are bright yellow and discolor the withering orange. There are two circles, each with four stamens present. The anthers are usually 3-6, rarely up to 9 millimeters long. Deep down in narrow flower cups is the vierfächerige, under constant, hairy ovary  . The several inches long (like long as the stamens) pen ends in four scars . 
Fruit and seeds [ Edit ]
The young fruit is covered with glandular hairs and pointy hair  . The fitting, lokulizide capsule fruit is at a length of 2 to 4 centimeters and a diameter of 4 to 6 mm and more or less straight cylindrical  . The seeds are in two rows per fruit tray. The 1.1 to 2 millimeters in size, angular  seeds have a brown to almost black and irregularly textured surface. 
Set of chromosomes [ Edit ]
The basic chromosome number is n = 7; it is diploidy ago, so 2n = 14th  
Ecology [ Edit ]
In the Commons Evening Primrose is a hemicryptophytes . 
Flowers Ecology [ Edit ]
The heyday of Commons Evening Primrose begins in Central Europe in early June and may last till the end of September with good location and weather conditions, in China it ranges from July to October  . The individual flowers are very short-lived. They open at dusk and are mostly faded until noon the next day. The exact date on which the flower is open, from Sun, daily temperature and humidity dependent. In the Commons, evening primrose self-compatibility and is Autogamie ago  .
The opening of the flowers is often within a few minutes in one fluid motion. The suddenness and rapidity of flowering is otherwise observed in any other found in Central Europe plant. It is therefore in the Botanical gardens and school gardens , a demonstration plant occasionally used. A blooming flowers is still usually odorless. Only after complete opening it spreads an intense sweet fragrance which is sometimes perceived as intrusive and almost fetid. The scars are accessible at the entrance flowers pollinating insects.
The pollination [ Edit ]
When you open the "stem plate bloom" first dusting the mature anther, which is why the flower is called vormännlich. To about 50% fertile  pollen grains are entangled with each other via Viscinfäden and thereby remain easily in coat or the sensors of insects hanging. Only when the dust bags were emptied, mature scars. These are immediately after opening flowers close together and unfold during the opening of the flower. nectar for pollinating insects is secreted at the base of the calyx-tube of a smooth, yellow honey gland, which lies above the ovary. The flower juice flows due to the horizontal position of the flower to the exit, where it rests on the pen sticks.
The pollination takes place in the summer about 30 minutes after opening the flowers mainly by moths of the family of enthusiasts , including Taubenschwänzchen (diurnal!) and Middle wine enthusiast , in Central Europe frequently Schwärmerart. An in Central Europe rather rare moth is because of his fondness for the nectar of this plant evening primrose moth called.
The moths you can occasionally observe how they in Schwirrflug are facing one of the flowers. Upon insertion of the proboscis, they roam the anthers of the flower. The scars are initially moved away due to a sideways movement of the stylus in the direction of access to the nectar. Half an hour after opening of the flower stretches of stylus also. His scars branches splay apart and it can now be pollinated by later arriving insects.
By day face, attracted by the bright yellow color of the petals with the invisible to humans juice bar painting, also langrüsselige bees and bumblebees and butterflies one. Occasionally you can find on the leaves of Commons, evening primrose with the up to eight inches long caterpillar of the Middle wine enthusiast with the characteristic crescent-shaped and white-rimmed eye patch . This usually specialized on fireweed bead can also use the Common evening primrose as Wolverine plant.
Samenstand a commons evening primrose
The spread of the seeds [ Edit ]
Since each main or side engine can produce up to 120 flowers, the Common evening primrose is very strong propagation.
In China, the fruits ripen from July to November  . At maturity, the four subjects of the fruit capsule tear along the back seam as a result of dehydration from the top down to the middle.
Each seed capsule contains up to 200 seeds. The triangular seeds have a membranous edge of wing. As propagation strategy the Common Evening Primrose uses the so-called Semachorie , the Ausstreuung by wind movement or the movement of the plant by animals. The only one thousandth of gram seeds are spread by movement of the vertically oriented capsule fruits. Then they are using their Flügelsaums spread as a pilot by the wind (so-called Meteorochorie ).
Distribution [ Edit ]
The original home of Commons Evening Primrose is the eastern and central North America  .
The Common Evening Primrose Evening Primrose was similar to other species in the 17th century as an ornamental plant by Europe introduced and other temperate regions of the world (so-called Ethelochorie ). Due to its late introduction to Europe, she is one of the hemerochoren neophytes . Already for the year 1623 its cultivation is near Paris occupied. In 1660 she was in Altdorf and 1668 in Halle planted and as Lysimachia virginina major fl. amplo referred. As a pure ornamental plant found already widespread. After it was discovered that their roots and leaves were edible, they built this way in many places in the kitchen gardens as a vegetable on. As a refugee garden this plant feral very quickly. Since 1766 they are described in Brandenburg as weeds . hybridizations with other evening primrose species have led to a large number of distinct small species difficult. Their present distribution owes mostly unwanted procrastination (so-called agochore propagation ) because their seeds often come with the cargo. In many temperate areas of the world Oenothera biennis a neophyte  .
As the site the Common evening primrose needs a dry, non-nutritious, but possible calcareous soil . Throughout Europe, the Middle East and East Asia it is on so-called Ruderalplätzen to find as roadsides, sand and gravel pits, quarries and gravel banks. Because of their distribution along the railway lines it is sometimes referred to as "rail plant".
Etymology [ Edit ]
Other common names are night flower, Yellow Nightshade, night primrose, egg flower, Yellow Rapunzel, Härekraut, Rapontika, beet root, cabbage ham, ham Wurz, Proud Heinrich, flower wine or wine herb and flower cough.
Carl Linnaeus in 1753 published the currently accepted botanical genus name Oenothera , extending from the Greek words oinos οῖνος for "wine" and ther θήρ for "animal" derives. Previously named Oenothera ancient and medieval authors such as Pliny the Elder and Paracelsus probably also to the family Onagraceae counting fireweed ( Epilobium ) denotes (the North American species of evening primrose could not know it). They were of the opinion that plant parts of this plant species in wine, the people enjoyed serene and wild animals do gently. The specific epithet biennis has the Zweijährigkeit of Oenothera biennis out.
Systematics [ Edit ]
The first publication of Oenothera biennis was made in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus in Species Plantarum , 1, p 346  . synonyms for Oenothera biennis L. are: Oenothera muricata L. , Oenothera suaveolens Desf. , Onagra biennis (L.) Scop. , Onagra muricata (L.) Moench  
Oenothera biennis is part of the subsection Oenothera from the section Oenothera genus in the evening primrose | Oenothera . 
In the botanical classification usually are 13 small species to species group or sample type Oenothera biennis agg. (Unit = sample type ) together as these very closely related, very similar to each other and are therefore difficult to distinguish. For them it is artgewordene hybrids , by means of a specific cytogenetic remain constant hereditary mechanism (complex heterozygosity).
The group of species Oenothera biennis agg. includes: Oenothera biennis L. , Oenothera canovirens ESSteele , Oenothera carinthiaca Rostanski , Oenothera deflexa RRGates , Oenothera erythrosepala (Borbás) Borbás , Oenothera fallax Renner ex Rostanski , Oenothera heiniana Teyber , Oenothera hoelscheri Renner & Rostanski , Oenothera pycnocarpa GFAtk. & Bartlett , Oenothera rubricaulis Kleb. , Oenothera salicifolia Desf. ex Ser. , Oenothera suaveolens Desf. , Oenothera wienii Renner ex Rostanski .
Use [ Edit ]
Use as food [ Edit ]
In the vernacular , the evening primrose is also known as "ham root", discolor because their roots during cooking reddish. Their widespread use in Europe is mainly due to its 18th century and 19th century frequent cultivation as a vegetable plant. Old proverbs claimed that a pound of evening primrose root as much force as give a hundredweight of beef. Therefore, the Common Evening Primrose is still one of the typical species of the cottage garden , even if it is cultivated only as ornamental plant.
In addition to the fleshy taproots also the leaves, flowers and seeds are edible. The roots boiled as salsify or parsnips in broth; they are sometimes cut into slices with vinegar and oil dressed. Harvested the roots from autumn of the first year (rosette stage) until spring. In the modern kitchen, the petals are sometimes used as edible decoration.
In some regions, such as in Masuria you used the roots and leaves are used to feed pigs .
Open fruit with seeds.
Use as a medicinal herb [ Edit ]
Even the North American Indians used the Common evening primrose as a medicinal plant .
In the natural medicine today, especially the evening primrose oil has a meaning. This oil extracted from the seeds is used to treat and for the symptomatic relief of eczema used internally. It contains large amounts of linoleic acid , which in the human body in gamma linolenic acid is converted. For her, the body forms over any intermediate steps prostaglandin E 1 . Due to a lack of enzyme activity of delta-6- desaturase deficiency in gamma-linolenic acid should exist in neurodermatitis. The gamma-linolenic acid contained in evening primrose oil in a concentration of between 8 to 14% allows the increased production of the anti-inflammatory active prostaglandin E 1 without delta-6-desaturase-mediated transformation of the cis linoleic acid to gamma-linolenic acid.  Since primrose oil is very is expensive, is to replace increasingly hemp oil used.
According to a meta-analysis of 27 studies on the effectiveness of evening primrose oil comes Cochrane Collaboration 2013, however, the final evaluation that both evening primrose oil as well which also gamma-linolenic acid-rich borage oil when taken orally no more than a placebo effect has also reaching effect on eczema. 
Use in cosmetics [ Edit ]
Evening primrose oil is due to its effects also use as an active ingredient and additive in cosmetics, especially in skin creams. The ingredients work here especially with lovely sensitive skin soothing and can be used pharmaceutically accordingly especially for dry, scaly and itchy skin. 
Cultivation [ Edit ]
To obtain the evening primrose oil evening primrose in the one and two-year agricultural crop can be grown. In a year of cultivation, the sowing takes place in the first half of April, at two-year culture period the fine seeds are sown in midsummer flat. The nutrient requirements of evening primrose are low. Diseases ( Septoria , downy mildew ) and pests (Nachtkerzenlaus, flea beetle , however, bird feeding on bolls) can affect the harvest.
As for breeding highly processed plant species typical, the seeds ripen unevenly. If three quarters of the fruit capsule brown in color, is the harvester harvested. Since the seeds are stored very dry (the water content in the seeds must not exceed 9 percent), joins the cleaning of seed drying on. In a two-year culture period is the seed yield 6-13 quintals per hectare in organic farming is expected to 3-7 quintals. The oil content of the seed is between 20 to 30 percent. 
In the 1990s, the evening primrose has been grown experimentally default. Currently in Germany build individual farmers primrose field moderately in order to market the oil directly.  
Medicinal Plants Encyclopedia of
evening primrose, evening primrose oil
Evening primrose oil contains omega-6 fatty acids - soothe sensitive skin - in the form of creams. Anyone who suffers from eczema may possibly also benefit from
Evening primrose (Oenothera biennis)
Evening primrose (Oenothera biennis)
Evening primrose (Oenothera biennis)
Their bright yellow flowers open only when it is dark - and light up like candles at dusk. Hence the name comes: evening primrose. The next day the flowers fall off again. The high growing plant native to North America and was the local natives as a medicinal plant known for skin problems.
What is the evening primrose and where occurs the medicinal plant?
The evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) grows up to one meter in height and drives an edgy stems from. The plant has basal leaves that look oblong to obovate, as well as smaller stem leaves. The bright yellow flowers form a racemose inflorescence. The fruits are elongated, quadrangular shape and are up to three inches long. Inside there are numerous plump seeds. The evening primrose is one of the evening primrose family (Onagraceae). It flowers from June to October. The plant has spread from North America to Europe and thrives in dry locations such as railway embankments and roadsides.
Which parts of plants and ingredients are used?
The active ingredients are in the evening primrose seeds. They are rich in oil, which is composed, inter alia, gamma-linolenic acid and linoleic acid. Both are among the polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acids.
What do the ingredients? Whereas evening primrose oil help?
The body is omega-6 fatty acids - they are, as already mentioned, the polyunsaturated fatty acids - not themselves form. Rather, they must be supplied with food. Omega-6 fats then builds the body including in the skin one. There they probably strengthen the barrier function and reduce moisture loss.
For some of the people who suffer from eczema suffer, there may be a lack of a specific enzyme that converts omega-6 fatty acids in the body. This defect could, inter alia, the symptoms of atopic dermatitis, such as atopic dermatitis is also called, cause with - about dry, itchy and flaky skin. Evening primrose oil is to relieve these symptoms.
Although sufferers report again from positive effects, scientific studies have produced no clear results. Therefore, the current guidelines for the treatment of atopic dermatitis recommends evening primrose not - neither as a dietary supplement or for application on the skin.
However, doctors often advocate it, creams with evening primrose oil - in addition to standard therapy - applying to the skin. Because of the high fat content, the sensitive dry skin calm.
Positive effects often show up only if evening primrose oil has been used for several weeks. Pregnant and lactating women should first check with the doctor, if appropriate preparations for it are.
Those taking evening primrose oil as a capsule or the like, may also feel side effects: It may cause headache , nausea come and gastrointestinal complaints.
Tip: You can advise on dosing and application in pharmacy.