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Evening Primrose Oil: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?

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EVENING PRIMROSE OIL: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?

When darkness falls, the evening primrose (unfolded Oenothera biennis) their large, highly fragrant flowers. How yellow beacon luring insects out of the darkness. The plant and its roots are edible, be used pharmaceutically today the seeds of the evening primrose, because they contain a special oil (linoleic acid and gamma-linolenic acid). Linoleic acid is vital for neurodermitics moreover, gamma-linolenic acid, because with them there is a metabolic defect, so that the important skin oils can not be produced.

The two oil acids of evening primrose are incorporated in the metabolism of inflammatory mediators, with an immunomodulating effect (activating / soothing). The evening primrose oil is available in capsules to be swallowed, it can also be applied directly to the skin. In addition, you can buy skin creams.

Indications: Against what helps Evening Primrose?
The Commission E has the night candle not edited ...
But ... there are numerous references before for the benefit of evening primrose oil, so it is in the list of important medicinal plants in the WHO conducted. The indications are called atopic dermatitis (atopic eczema ), diabetic nerve damage caused (diabetic neuropathy) and discomfort of the female breast (mastalgia). The studies of benefit in inflammatory diseases rheumatism and premenstrual syndrome were mixed. The situation has not been resolved conclusively here. Negative cut the trials for menopausal symptoms and psoriasis from evening primrose oil.

Evening primrose oil is mild and is compared to chemical agents very friendly.
Applications divided by effectiveness
Secured effectiveness SheetSheetSheet
For these areas of application are clear clinical studies to be assumed by an effectiveness. Efficacy was at least one of the relevant Valuation commissions ( Commission E / ESCOP / HMPC / WHO found authentic).

Was approved by the Commission E does not process it is but by the WHO recognized with the following application areas:
Atopic dermatitis , atopic eczema
diabetic neuropathy
Mastalgia, cyclical recurring feeling of tightness in the chest
Effectiveness according to experience SheetSheet
There are numerous indications of a long history of use in folk medicine and in medical alternative medicine that can accept an activity. However, so far all the criteria are not met, which is necessary for a full evidentiary force. If there are clinical studies, the results did not unequivocally convinced.
Allergy: hypoallergenic
Skin problems in infants, Hauentzündung, itching, dry skin
Headache
Premenstrual syndrome symptoms before the onset of menstruation
Raynaud phenomenon (vasospasm)
rheumatoid arthritis
Wound treatment
Links to the diseases in which evening primrose can help
Genitals and sex life:
SheetSheetSheetMastodynia
SheetSheetMenstrual cramps
Skin and hair:
SheetSheetSkin diseases
SheetSheetSheetEczema
SheetSheetWounds
Immune system:
SheetSheetAllergies
Head, brain and nerves:
SheetSheetHeadache
SheetSheetMigraine
Muscles, bones and joints:

How does evening primrose?
A key ingredient of the evening primrose, the gamma-linolenic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid of three. Gamma-linolenic acid in the body is converted into two other acids (dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid), which in turn precursors of certain growth hormones ( Prostaglandins and leukotrienes are). This tissue hormones act on the cholesterol level, the dilation of blood vessels and are involved in inflammatory reactions. The gamma-linolenic acid has anti-inflammatory pain reliever for irritable bowel syndrome , menopausal symptoms, as well as circulatory and rheumatism. skin in approximately 10-20% of the population lack the enzyme d 6 desaturase (delta-6-desaturase), the linoleic acid into gamma-linolenic acid converts. Particularly common people are concerned that the skin disease eczema suffer. Several clinical studies, the efficacy of gamma-linolenic acid in the treatment of were eczema (skin inflammation with itching) can be assigned:

In a clinical study, 14 patients suffering from a skin disease characterized by itchy, dry and scaly skin (atopic dermatitis), treated with evening primrose oil. This decreased in all patients, the extent of damage to the skin and itching. Also the values ​​of a particular protein (interferon gamma, a protein of the human immune system) normalized again.
gamma-linolenic acid is also effective in children with atopic dermatitis positive. According to a survey of the German Skin and Allergy Aid Association in 1000 practicing physicians the substance improves the skin's appearance in three of four affected children. A therapeutic success, however, is expected to take several months.

Gynecological Disorders
Premenstrual syndrome (recurrent symptoms before the onset of menstruation)
there was evidence in several studies on clinical efficacy of evening primrose oil. mastodynia (tightness in the chest) women with cyclical mastalgia had low concentrations of metabolites of gamma-linolenic acid. By taking evening primrose oil improved at several women's complaints. The evening primrose oil worked better than treatment with a sham preparation, sometimes just as good as the drug bromocriptine and worse rather than a therapy with the drug danazol; these two drugs can be prescribed for disorders of the hormonal system. The onset of action however, has often only after 12-16 weeks. Due to the low side effects of evening primrose oil might be suitable for women who do not necessarily need a rapid onset of action, but a long-term therapy. Even for women with infertility evening primrose oil is suitable. joint diseases (rheumatoid arthritis ) From experience reports and clinical studies have shown that evening primrose oil in patients with rheumatoid arthritis may have a positive effect. This is due to the gamma-linolenic acid from which a hormone, prostaglandin E1 is produced in the body. This may have anti-inflammatory and alter the immune system. In a clinical study, 16 patients r

eceived daily evening primrose oil (corresponding to 540 mg of gamma-linolenic acid), 15 patients a mixture of evening primrose oil and fish oil (corresponding to 450 gamma-linolenic acid and 240 mg eicosapentaenoic acid) and 18 patients a mock preparation without active substance ( placebo ). After 12 months, all patients received only a placebo. During the first 12 months improved in comparison to the placebo group, the subjective condition of the patients who received evening primrose oil alone or with fish oil. These patients required fewer non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (analgesics that are used among other things for rheumatism). After 3 months of placebo -Einnahme the patient suffered a relapse. Although they consumed less non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the disease did not worsen.

In another study, patients received for 6 months 2.8 g of pure gamma-linolenic acid in capsule form. In contrast, a comparison group received only a placebo. For patients taking gamma-linolenic acid, the symptoms of rheumatoid reduced arthritis significantly. Thereafter, all patients for 6 months gamma-linolenic acid were given, after which showed improvements in both groups. Thus, the patients who received during the whole study period of gamma-linolenic acid showed continuous improvement during the second six months. The gamma-linolenic acid was found in the used here dose was well tolerated and effective in active rheumatoid arthritis . Raynaud phenomenon (vasospasm) The Raynaud phenomenon is characterized by a vascular spasm, generates the skin color changes in three phases: Pale ( due to vascular spasm), cyanosis (due to the release of oxygen of the blood in the veins) and an inflammatory skin redness (representing the congestion by the recurrent blood flow). When Raynaud's phenomenon is also the clumping of platelets and white blood cells is increased and disturbed the deformability of red blood cells.

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In the 1980s, a clinical study of 21 patients was carried out. Patients received only for 14 days a mock preparation ( placebo ), then took 11 of them for 8 weeks every day of 12 capsules of evening primrose oil capsules (one capsule containing 540 mg of gamma-linolenic acid), while the other 10 patients continued to receive the placebo. When the weather turned bad, which suffered placebo group significantly more vascular spasms as the evening primrose oil group. nerve disease in diabetes ( diabetic neuropathy ), evening primrose oil can in mild diabetic neuropathy (one associated with diabetes nerve disease) help as gamma-linolenic acid an essential component of the membrane of nerve cells.

There are some clinical studies in which patients were treated with diabetic polyneuropathy with gamma-linolenic acid. However, it appeared with a doctor who was later accused of having falsified the study results in favor of gamma-linolenic acid. In another clinical study, no improvement in the treatment of evening primrose oil compared to the sham preparation could be detected. However, in this study, the nerve function was investigated by using another method. In diabetic rats, treatment with evening primrose oil improved nerve function and blood flow. However, in contrast rose to another used in this study, active ingredient (a-lipoic acid), the concentrations of triglycerides, cholesterol and blood coagulation factors. tumors has been shown that a low-fat extract of evening primrose initiating programmed cell death of tumor cells in vitro. The viability of normal cells (in this experiment were the fibroblasts from mouse embryos) was the extract is not impaired.

Article Wiki Closed - EVENING PRIMROSE OIL: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?
asked Aug 13, 2014 by Lancomega Level (10,245 points)
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