PEPPERMINT: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?
Peppermint and kitchen Teekraut equally
The incomparable taste of peppermint we already know mostly from childhood. In most cases, when mom came around the corner with a cup of freshly brewed mint tea, because time was a cold approaching again. Here, this mint is used not only as a tea, but also as a culinary herb. PeppermintEnglishmen season with the herbaceous Peppermint some sauce, and in some Arab and North African countries, the herb has established itself as a "standard spice" and mint tea has there the importance of a national drink .
The "normal" Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) comes from the genus of mints. Within this genus there are a variety of mint species, such as the Moroccan mint. So you can plant different kinds and enjoy.
The undemanding and totally easy-care peppermint you can grow not only in bed, but also easily in a nice bucket. So the perennial herb also enriches the small herb garden on the balcony.
The optimum location for the peppermint in the garden
The hardy peppermint needed to feel a slightly sunny to semi-shady spot. In addition, up to 100 centimeters tall mint want to find a moist and nutrient-rich soil. This should be humic, loamy or sandy.
Like all mint species also tends to proliferate Peppermint - leave space for the next crop. Before you plant the herb in the bed, you should bring in a root barrier. Otherwise you sometime very much peppermint in the garden. Alternatively, you can set the mint with a pot in the ground or put in a nice tub on the terrace.
Maintain and increase the peppermint in the garden
Since the peppermint moist soils preferred, should the herb regularly to frequent, especially on very hot summer days pour. Waterlogging should be avoided.
In a nutrient-rich soil, the peppermint is not mandatory fertilized. If you want to fertilize: do not overdo it - less is often more. Since you want to use the herb, organic fertilizer is naturally the first choice. Here, for example, offer to horn shavings or nettle liquid manure.
If you have planted in your herb garden camomile, leave space between the two herbs. Peppermint and chamomile are not "green" and are therefore not suitable as direct neighbors.
About every two to five years, the peppermint is planted to a different location in the garden. Where previously the mint stood, should be at least four to five years no mint, so no more mint, are cultivated.
The proliferation of Peppermint is very easy - either throughout the year or a division in spring by cuttings.
Harvest and dry the mint and keep
The shoots and young leaves can be harvested as needed - whether for a tea, as a decoration on the dessert or cocktail. Would you like to stockpile, the peppermint is harvested before they bloom - so you get the best quality. In the fall you can again "in a big way" harvest. This harvest usually worthwhile only when the summer sun was rich and has thus ensured sufficient ingredients. If your stock from the first harvest is large enough, you can also just cut down the peppermint in the fall. Using this interface, the herb comes easily over the winter.
In general, the herb is harvested for the mint, and the drying is suitable in this case for the preservation of. For this you can cut the whole herb from the ground. Make sure that the drying proceeds rapidly and without sunlight - otherwise suffer the ingredients of peppermint. If the herb is dried completely, this is well sealed and kept in the dark.
The mint in pots on the balcony or terrace
As in the wild peppermint needed in a pot slightly sunny to partially shaded spot. The nutrient-rich substrate is also kept slightly moist, stagnant moisture must also be avoided at all costs. To prevent this, you should think in advance when planting in the drainage layer. Peppermint is fertilized moderately with an organic fertilizer.
During the cold season the cut peppermint may well remain on the balcony. Be strong frosts expected, you can cover the plant with a non-woven or gauze and put the hardy bucket on a Styrofoam plate and this additionally wrap with bubble wrap. If you want to be absolutely sure, you can overwinter the potted peppermint also indoors in a cool place.
Peppermint (Mentha x piperita)
Genus: mint (Mentha) Family: Lamiaceae (Lamiaceae ) Class: Dicots (Dicotyledoneae) subdivision: angiosperms (Angiospermae) : Seed plants (Spermatophyta)
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Peppermint is by a cross (hybrid) between water mint (Mentha aquatica) and the ears of corn mint (Mentha spicata) and is caused by you not wild before. For the first time Peppermint has been described in England in 1696. Since M. spicata is already a bastard, is in mint to a Stard Tripp Elba, which is largely sterile. Over time, adapted cultivated forms were developed by the peppermint to different soil conditions. Has become famous among other things Mitcham peppermint (English peppermint). The cultivated forms also differ in the quantitative composition of the essential oils. The genus Mentha consists of 14 species in Europe and a large number of hybrids, which all intersect with each other easily and are difficult to determine. Peppermint has been cultivated for a long time. It is a perennial, herbaceous crop.
The peppermint reaches a height 30-70 cm. In the upper third of the stems are angular. The stalked, opposite leaves are oblong-ovate and pointed proceed. They are intensely colored green, about 3 cm wide and about 5-8 cm long. The flat leaf edge is serrated. The whole plant smells strongly of peppermint.
The numerous flowers are in terminal, spike-like inflorescences, which grow spherically to the side shoots. The bald cup is 3 - 4 mm long. The pale purple colored, 4-zipfelige crown is about 5mm in size. The flower stems are bare.
The heyday of peppermint is between June and August.
Peppermint flower heads
The seeds of peppermint are barely viable, therefore it multiplies vegetatively via its offshoots (stolons) in the shallow root system and is drawn from seedlings.
Peppermint as a medicinal plant
used medicinally, the dried peppermint leaves (Menthae piperitae fulium), and the product obtained from the leaves by steam distillation of peppermint oil (Menthae piperitae aetheroleum). The leaves contain <1% essential oil. Peppermint oil is the one most commonly used essential oil.
Main ingredients of peppermint essential oils, especially menthol and menthone, Menthyacetat and tannins, and flavonoids.
Leaves of peppermint
Peppermint oil is a pale greenish-yellow liquid with an intense smell of peppermint. The taste is burning, later cooling. A bitter aftertaste indicates adulteration. To the distinction on mint oils is tested for menthofuran. Menthofuran converts also oxidatively in a variety of substances to which give the peppermint oil its characteristic odor.
The peppermint has an antispasmodic effect in the digestive tract, blähungsmindernd and stimulates the production of bile and the appetite. So that peppermint - in particular as a tea or herbal tea blend - in gastro-intestinal or Verdauungstees, as carminative (blähungsmindernd) and against irritable bowel is used. Furthermore, the Peppermint is used as an ingredient in many processed products containing the main application digestion.
In mint tea from tea bags should be paid to Pharmacopeia quality, because cheap tea bags in the discount or supermarket often have a very high (ineffective) stem proportion in the blends. Alternatively, also offer spray-dried teas.
On the skin and mucous membranes caused peppermint oil a reduction in the sensation of pain and triggers a cold feeling by energizing the cold receptors. It also has disinfectant properties. Therefore, peppermint is also in toothpastes, mouthwashes, liqueur. Chocolate, lollies and taste or Geruchskorrigens used. Peppermint is known for the cool aftertaste.
Since Peppermint also stimulates the nervous system generally, it is also used for headaches and nervousness. Menthol is also used as an additive to baths and liniments. Also in inhalants with colds menthol has proven. For inhalation rich few drops of peppermint oil in hot water.
In no chewing gum no peppermint, but is M.spicata ("Spearmint") is used.
As Konsumtee to time taking in large amounts of peppermint tea is not suitable. Infants and young children should not be treated with peppermint oil or preparations thereof. Example, it may come at Mentholeinreibungen to spasmodic cough to choking.
Cultivation of peppermint
The mint needs a sunny to partially shaded spot. The soil should be rich in lime and nitrogen salts. Warm floors raise the quality of essential oils to extreme heat reduces their quality and quantity.
About 3 years, the leaves are harvested twice each year. The best quality is the first cut before flowering. The second cut is made in the autumn. After cutting, the leaves must be dried quickly and without exposure to the sun and then kept closed.
It is grown from cuttings (separated foothills). Between the plantations five years should no peppermint or other mint plants are grown. It offer then on potatoes or grain.
Larger regions can be found in Eastern Europe, the Americas and Asia. In Germany there are only a small peppermint plantations..
Mint, perennial plant of the family Lamiaceae, has over twenty-five species (pennyroyal, sweet, water, etc.) some of which are ground covers and do not exceed three inches (mint of Corsica). She likes a drained, fertile soil and fresh. Its leaves are covered with large secretory rounded bristles in which accumulate odorous volatiles.
The history of the mint refers to a domestic scene in Olympus. Hera, Zeus furious to see her husband fickle tighten too closely nymph Minthe, transformed her rival in wild plant, but she forgot to deprive it of its fresh and tempting smell. Hippocrates and Aristotle mistakenly thought, born of a lascivious nymph, the plant was an aphrodisiac. In fact, it is a tonic and stimulating.
We found the mint leaves in the sarcophagi in Egypt, and is mentioned as a remedy for upset stomach in the Ebers Papyrus, the oldest known medical treatise. Five centuries BC, it is prescribed in Babylon to relieve abdominal pain and, nowadays, it plays an important role in the food industry. The Romans scented their wine to how, in the Arab world, tea is flavored. Amie clear and logical ideas, she acted as a stimulus for students which Pliny recommended to wear the head with a crown of braided mint.
Cultivation and production
Roman ChamomileIt cultivates various mints in the world, especially in India, Morocco (Mentha viridis), Europe and North America. Peppermint requires sixteen hours of daylight to flower. The market for essential oils of mint is one of the largest in the world and the United States is the largest producer. France will bear little but of remarkable quality.
Extraction and Performance
The leaves of good quality Mentha piperatadestinées aromatherapy contain more than nine milliliters of essential oil per dry kilogram. The efficiency of the distillation of a hundred pounds of leaves and flowering tops varies considerably mints and locations: two hundred grams to two kilograms of essential oil. For peppermint, the yield is 0.8% to 1.2%, eight hundred grams to a kilo two hundred grams of essential oil to two hundred pounds of fresh plant.
Peppermint, menthol which gives a very fascinating smell and "ice effect" well known are mainly used in perfumery. The "fuzzy" mint (Mentha viridis) has a much more plant grass scent.
The chemical composition of Mentha piperatavarie greatly depending on soil and harvest time. The essential oil of peppermint is mainly composed of menthol (30% to 40%), menthone (20% to 65%), esters, sulfur compounds and coumarins.
Experiments conducted double blind amply confirmed the efficacy of the essential oil of peppermint on digestive disorders, indigestion, acid reflux, vomiting, motion sickness. Tonic for the body and mind, and great antispasmodic analgesic, it soothes the pain of all kinds, shock and trauma, tendonitis, sciatica, rheumatism, headaches, neuralgia, shingles, herpes. She itchy skin from all sources disappear. It is antibacterial, anti-mite.