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Peppermint: Health Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?

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PEPPERMINT: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?

Common Names: mint, English mint. Botanical name: Mentha x piperita, mint family or Lamiaceae. English name: peppermint .

Parts used: aerial parts harvested just before flowering; essential oil extracted from the aerial parts flowers. Habitat and origin: it is believed that peppermint is native to the Middle East. It is the result of hybridization between water mint ( Mentha aquatica ) and spearmint ( Mentha spicata ). Usually sterile, it is spread by stolons or its suckers (low branches that develop roots in contact with the ground). Today there are several varieties of peppermint is cultivated worldwide.

Indications
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Likely effectiveness
Essential oil internally - Relieving the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and dyspepsia (in association with the essential oil of caraway).
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Uncertain effectiveness
Essential oil externally - alleviate headaches (topical application); prevent chapped nipples of breastfeeding women; prevent postsurgical nausea (inhalation).
Recognized use
Essential oil internally : Relieving the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, colds and minor digestive problems. essential oil externally : treat inflammation of the airways and the mouth; alleviate cold symptoms and cough, rheumatic, muscle and nerve pain; relieve headaches and itching. Leaves - alleviate gastrointestinal and biliary spasms, flatulence, cold symptoms, gastritis and enteritis.

Traditional use
Promote digestion; relieve nausea; relieve pain; treat infections of the respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, eczema, and biliary and pancreatic insufficiency.
For details, see Research peppermint .

Dosage of peppermint
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Internally

Digestive disorders

Essential oil. Take 2 to 4 drops of essential oil diluted in a small amount of vegetable oil, 3 times per day. Start with 2 drops to tame the strong menthol flavor that can surprise the taste buds.
The essential oil is extracted from the aerial parts of peppermint which contain from 1% to 3%. It is composed of 30% to 55% of menthol , an alcohol that provides a feeling of freshness when it binds to certain nerve receptors. It also contains the pulegone , a substance toxic whose content does not exceed 4%.

Infusion. Infuse 1 tsp. tablespoons dried leaves in 150 ml of boiling water for 10 minutes. Take 3 to 4 cups a day between meals or as a digestive.
Dye (1: 5 to 45% ethanol). Take 2 ml to 5 ml of dye, 3 times per day.
Respiratory infections

Essential oil. Take 2 to 4 drops of essential oil diluted in a small amount of vegetable oil, 3 times per day. Start with 2 drops to tame the strong menthol flavor that can surprise the taste buds.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Essential oil capsule or enteric coated tablets. Take 0.2 ml (or 187 mg), 3 times a day, with water, before meals.
Externally

Watch out

Do not use the essential oil topical use in children, especially near the nose and respiratory tract, as it can cause spasms of the larynx or bronchi may cause choking.
The pure essential oil, when applied near the eyes, can irritate temporarily. Wash hands after external application.
Respiratory infections

Essential oil. Rub the chest, if necessary, with preparations for external use listed below (see box). We can add 3 or 4 drops of hot water and inhale the aroma. Or use a nasal ointment.
Headaches

Massaging the forehead and temples with topical preparations mentioned below. Repeat every 15 to 30 minutes as needed. Do not apply too close to the eyes.
Itchy skin, rheumatic pain, nerve or muscle

Rub the affected area with one of the preparations mentioned below. Repeat as necessary.
Preparations for external use

  • 2 or 3 drops of essential oil pure or diluted in a little warm water or vegetable oil.
  • cream, oil or ointment containing 5% to 20% essential oil.
    tincture - containing 5% 10% essential oil.
  • For application to the nasal mucosa: nasal ointment containing from 1% to 5% essential oil.

History of peppermint
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Found leaves peppermint in Egyptian pyramids dating from the first millennium BC. AD The name of the plant comes from Minthe, a nymph in Greek mythology Persephone, jealous, transformed into "peppermint" flower. The Greeks and the Hebrews used the plant to perfume while the Romans put in their wine and sauces. Their women chewed a paste containing mint and honey to mask the smell of the wine they drank in secret because the law punished with death those who used a drink reserved for men and gods.

The peppermint became popular in Western Europe in the XVIII th century. Today, the essential oil is widely used in the food industry and is found as an ingredient in many pharmaceutical preparations syrups and lozenges against cough and cold medicines, lotions, ointments and antiseptic creams, local anesthetics, etc. The United States is the biggest peppermint oil producers.

Research on peppermint
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Likely effectiveness Irritable bowel syndrome. During the 1980s, clinicians have thought to use the antispasmodic properties of peppermint to cure the pain of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). To ensure that the essential oil of peppermint can reach the intestine, they used tablets or capsules with a coating resistant to stomach acids ( enteric ) 9 .

In 2005, an initial review of clinical trials found that the essential oil of peppermint (180 mg to 200 mg per day) gave positive results 10 . It was later confirmed by a published meta-analysis in 2008, in which the authors emphasized that the essential oil was effective in relieving the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and cheaper than antispasmodic drugs 11 .

Likely effectiveness Dyspepsia. 5 was conducted clinical trials involving 484 patients with functional dyspepsia (non-ulcer) to test the effectiveness of the essential oil of peppermint associated with that caraway. Overall, the results indicate that such preparation can relieve abdominal pain in about 95% of patients and it provides comparable effects with cisapride, a classic drug used to treat these digestive disorders 1-5 . The authors of a summary published in 2002 points out that the combination peppermint / caraway is a valid and safe treatment to relieve symptoms of dyspepsia, especially since the drugs have very limited effectiveness for this type of digestive disorder 6 .

Antispasmodic effect
Several tests conducted mostly in Japan show that the essential oil of peppermint reduces spasms of the intestines caused by procedures such as barium enema or endoscopy abdominal 12-17 . Some of these tests indicate that it can be equally or even more effective than conventional antispasmodic administered by injection 13.17 .

Uncertain effectiveness Headaches. was conducted two preliminary clinical trials to test the effectiveness of the application of essential oil of peppermint to relieve headaches associated with nervous tension 19.20 . The most recent, rubbing his temples with an alcoholic solution containing 10% essential oil is as effective as a dose of 1000 mg of acetaminophen (Tylenol).

Uncertain effectiveness Cracking breasts (breastfeeding). 's cracking caused by breastfeeding are very painful and are a major reason for its abandonment 18 . In a controlled trial of 216 women who breastfed their first baby, a gel containing 0.2% peppermint oil was more effective than the purified lanolin and a placebo gel to reduce the number of cracks on the nipples .

Uncertain effectiveness Postsurgical nausea. 2 The results of preliminary tests indicate that peppermint oil may help to counter the nausea consecutive surgical procedures 21,22 .

Recognized use The Commission E , the World Health Organization and the ESCOP recognize the use of peppermint oil externally to relieve headaches, colds, skin irritation and some muscle aches, neuralgic or rheumatic . These organizations also recognize several therapeutic effects in mint taken as a tea: relief of gastrointestinal spasms and biliary tract, digestive disorders minor (dyspepsia), the irritable bowel syndrome and cold symptoms.

Traditional use Respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal. 's test results in vitro tend to confirm these traditional uses. The essential oil of mint would indeed antibacterial marked on several strains of infectious microorganisms, including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus 23.24 .

Various
During a preliminary controlled trial, the use of a blend of essential oils of rosemary, lavender and peppermint improved the painkiller effect of acupressure treatment in patients suffering from pain in shoulder after a stroke 25 .
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Precautions
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Cons-indications
Children. peppermint essential oil is cons-indicated, for internal use in babies under 30 months. In children less than 4 years, avoid topical applications near airways, as this can trigger spasms of the larynx or bronchi and cause a temporary suffocation.
The essential oil of peppermint is against-indicated internally when biliary obstruction, inflammation of the gallbladder and severe liver disease 26 .
Pregnancy. Though it is often recommended to pregnant women to counter the nausea of pregnancy, the safety of peppermint oil has not been established in this regard 27 .
Adverse effects
Taking tablets non enteric of peppermint oil can cause, at times, heartburn, especially in people with gastroesophageal reflux.
In some sensitive individuals or those suffering from peptic ulcer, taking strong menthol lozenges or peppermint essential oil can irritate the lining of the mouth or exacerbate an ulcer.
Rare cases of cutaneous mint allergy have been reported.
Interactions
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With plants or supplements
Concomitant use of peppermint and an iron supplement may interfere with the absorption of iron 28.29 .
With drugs
Antacids and drugs used to treat stomach ulcers can lead to the dissolution of enteric-coated tablets or capsules of peppermint oil in the stomach rather than in the gut. Mint tablets take at least two hours before or after medication.
According to a test on rats, the essential oil of peppermint greatly increases the bioavailability of oral cyclosporine, a drug immunosuppressant used in transplantation organ 30 .
According to tests in vitro , the essential oil of peppermint inhibit major cytochrome P450 enzymes, which play a role in the metabolism of many drugs. However, this interaction is theoretical 31 .
On the shelves
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We find peppermint in many forms in trade: dried for herbal teas, pure essential oil, or pellet leaves, tinctures, topical preparations of essential oil (ointments, lotions, creams) and tablets or capsules (enteric generally).

Furthermore peppermint ( Mentha piperita ) discussed in this card, spearmint, for example (there are other species, M. spicata ), the menthol content may be reduced and the effects may differ from what which is described herein.

Peppermint has been used for millennia

Constitution
It consisted mainly of essential oil of flavonoids and phenolic acids and menthol where its powerful scent.
Peppermint quality is used in the pharmaceutical field for his many virtues.
Properties
Peppermint was already working time of the pharaohs for its calming and anesthetic effects. Old traditions define it as having tonic and invigorating aromatic properties and digestive properties.
Today, clinical studies demonstrate that the plant has antispasmodic properties, antibacterial and antioxidant.
Areas of application
It was also shown that menthol help breathe easier when nasal obstruction. The feeling of "cold" thermoreceptors stimulated by giving the impression that the individual sinuses are cleared instantly.
The virtues of mint mainly affect the therapeutic "traditional" area, it is prescribed as a tea for digestive disorders, headaches and migraines.
Inhaled, the essential oil of peppermint has an immediate effect on colds and seasonal rhinitis.
Peppermint can be used as massage oil and acts as a protective and soothing care. It effectively treats cracks, insect bites and itching with all skin itching.
Finally, the essential oil helps refresh and relieve tired legs, a simple circular massage twice a day helps to overcome the inconvenience.
For questions or additional information, do not hesitate to consult your doctor, pharmacist or aromatherapist.
Precautions

Peppermint, used essentially in essential oil form, can be harmful to health in some individuals.
It may be that its essential oil causes serious disorders in young children, in this case when directly applied to the face or nose. A major risk that can cause respiratory distress and even coma.
It is therefore recommended not use in children under eight years of age or in pregnant or lactating women.
Also avoid contact with eyes or mucous membranes. Peppermint can lead to serious injuries caused by irritation.
Peppermint is against-indicated in patients with inflammation of the gallbladder or bile ducts having obstructed.

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asked Aug 13, 2014 by Lancomega Level (10,245 points)
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