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Peppermint: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?

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PEPPERMINT: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?

Best known peppermint (is Mentha x piperita ) as well Pfefferminzteeprodukt. However, the medicinal plant can do much more than in teas to taste good. Your essential oils, including the active ingredient menthol offer numerous modes of action that help in various ailments. The ingredients spoken to an antispasmodic, sedative, cholagogue and antioxidant effects.

The application area is as diverse because of the different properties of peppermint. Tension headaches, gastrointestinal complaints, infections of the upper respiratory tract or sports injuries - not only for these indications come peppermint products in question. The traditional application areas range from bloating and vomiting on functional heart complaints, heartburn. Peppermint Products are offered in various forms, including tablets, capsules or oils - and not to forget, as mentioned above, the mint tea.
Peppermint

Uses for Peppermint
How does peppermint?
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Indications: Against what helps peppermint?
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Herbal help gastrointestinal complaints
Peppermint is used in various spasm states: gastrointestinal colic, indigestion, irritable bowel syndrome, bloating, burping, bile complaints. Unfortunately, there are few clinical data.
The cooling effect due to menthol, which activates cold receptors. The oil of peppermint acts beyond weak anesthetic and is used externally for pain relief for headaches and migraines applied.
Also, an antimicrobial and antiviral activity are detected, so the plant is used for inflammation of the oral mucosa and in oral healthcare.
Applications divided by effectiveness
Secured effectiveness SheetSheetSheet
For these areas of application are clear clinical studies to be assumed by an effectiveness. Efficacy was at least one of the relevant Valuation commissions ( Commission E / ESCOP / HMPC / WHO found authentic).
cramp-like pain in the stomach and bowel and gallbladder and routes.
Inflammation with secretion of mucus (catarrh) of the upper airways
Stomatitis
Myalgia and discomfort caused by nerve pain (peppermint oil, externally)
Irritable bowel syndrome (engl: irritable bowel syndrome, IBS)
Effectiveness according to experience SheetSheet
There are numerous indications of a long history of use in folk medicine and in medical alternative medicine that can accept an activity. However, so far all the criteria are not met, which is necessary for a full evidentiary force. If there are clinical studies, the results did not unequivocally convinced.
Digestive complaints: bloating, nausea
Gastritis
Headache
Tension headaches and migraines (peppermint oil, externally)
Nausea, vomiting
May contain links to the diseases in which help peppermint
Ear, nose, ears, mouth and teeth:
SheetSheetSheetSore throat
SheetSheetSheetInfections of the upper respiratory tract
SheetSheetHalitosis
Heart, circulation and vessels:
SheetSheetFunctional heart complaints
Immune system:
SheetSheetHay fever
Head, brain and nerves:
SheetSheetHeadache
SheetSheetMigraine
Body regions across symptoms:
SheetSheetSheetStomach ache
Liver, gall bladder and pancreas:
SheetSheetGallstones
Stomach, bowel and esophagus:
SheetSheetBloating
SheetSheetVomit
SheetSheetGastritis
SheetSheetCrohn's disease
SheetSheetSheetIrritable bowel
SheetSheetMorning sickness
SheetSheetHeartburn
SheetSheetIndigestion
Muscles, bones and joints:
SheetSheetSheetSports Injuries
Psyche, restlessness, stress and addiction :
SheetSheetDrug addiction
How does peppermint?
The variety of peppermint
Peppermint leaves and their preparations act on internal application
- antispasmodic
- soothing
- blähungstreibend
- cholagogue
- against bacteria, presumably against viruses
For the effect of the constituents of the essential oil are mainly responsible. The active ingredient menthol affects the cold receptors, causing a cooling effect is produced. Some phytochemicals contained in the leaves act as a radical scavenger ( antioxidant ).
Scientists at Kiel University Clinic reported in a study, the effect of peppermint oil solution against tension headaches, the most common type of headache after. For this purpose, the alcoholic solution was applied to the forehead.
Several studies peppermint oil had antispasmodic in gastrointestinal reflections or an enema with barium sulfate. Here, the peppermint oil was charged and released with a probe in the gastro-intestinal tract or external administration together with the barium sulfate Suspenison. The so-administered peppermint oil resulted in these studies that the stomach and intestines in the studies less cramped.
irritable bowel syndrome (germ .: irritable bowel syndrome, IBS)
These intestinal disorders are expressed in intermittent abdominal pain and alternating between constipation and diarrhea. It is characterized by a feeling of incomplete defecation and flatulence.
- A few years ago a clinical study with 110 outpatients (age: 18-70 years) was conducted in Taiwan suffering from the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.

Of these, about half received for a month 3 - 4 times daily enteric-coated capsule with peppermint oil (15 - 30 min. Before meals). The other group received a sham drug ( placebo ). In the peppermint oil group had relief of symptoms than in the placebo group. (One patient got heartburn because he chewed the capsules, another patient showed a slight transient skin rash).

  • A meta-analysis of five placebo -controlled, double-blind studies also indicate a positive effect of peppermint oil in the treatment of irritable bowel symptoms. Because there are some methodological weaknesses in many studies, no clear conclusions about the effectiveness can be given yet. These more well-planned and carefully executed studies are needed.

  • In the USA, a clinical study of 42 children who also suffered from these complaints, performed. They received either enteric-coated peppermint oil capsules or placebo . After 2 weeks, 75% of the children had in the peppermint oil group less abdominal pain, caused by irritable bowel syndrome.

The following studies were performed in animal experiments and in vitro:

Cancer
newborn albino mice was injected a substance that causes lung tumors. The oral administration of an extract from Mentha piperita -Scroll reduced the number of lung tumors in comparison to the control animals these extracts did not receive. Also, changes in the genetic material (eg chromosome breaks) in bone marrow cells occurred in the with peppermint extract treated animals not as common as in the control animals.
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Protection against radiation damage
In albino mice could provide protection against radiation damage are detected by peppermint oil. When the animals were fed three days prior to irradiation with peppermint oil, they were compared to the control animals that received no peppermint oil, a better chance of survival. The altered blood counts recovered after irradiation again.

Herpes simplex virus
Herpes simplex virus mainly affects the lip. It bubbles arise on erythematous base. As a Heidelberg researchers found, peppermint oil in a test tube is capable of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 kill. Since peppermint oil can penetrate due to its lipophilic (fat-loving) nature in the skin, it would be possible, peppermint oil - applied to the skin - against a recurring herpes infection use.

Appearance and origin
Peppermint ( Mentha x piperita ) was chosen as the "Medicinal Plant of the Year 2004". From the leaves not only tasty mint tea, but also drugs can be produced. In ancient famous herbal books peppermint is not to be found. This is because this plant at that time did not exist. It arose only later (in the 17th century) as a spontaneous crossing of two species, water mint ( Mentha aquatica ) and spearmint ( Mentha spicata ). 1696 saw the English biologist John Ray this plant in a garden and named it because of its sharp taste "peppermint".

Peppermint is a perennial, mostly hairless plant. It has up to 90 cm high, reddish purple stems and pink flowers in dense, elongated terminal inflorescences. For medicinal purposes, fresh or dried leaves and the essential oil obtained therefrom (peppermint oil) are used. The world production of peppermint oil is more than 3000 tons annually. It is mainly produced in the United States.

Comments
There are other mint species, which are also used pharmaceutically. These differ in the menthol content. From the field mint ( Mentha Arvenis ) natural menthol obtained. Mint oil - remaining after the preparation of oil residue, which still contains about 40% menthol - is derived from this plant and is thus not the same as peppermint oil. The mint or spearmint ( Mentha spicata ) is medically rarely used, but their oil is used in oral hygiene.

Dosage form
Is widespread especially the mint tea.
Peppermint extract is also available in the form of capsules and tablets. Also available is peppermint oil (which is released during the delayed active ingredient) as a component of finished products as well as in sustained-release will be available.

The Commission E * recommended for internal use as a mean daily dose of 6-12 drops of peppermint oil. Irritable bowel (irritable bowel syndrome, IBS) recommends this Commission a mean single dose of 0.2 ml and a mean daily dose of 0.6 ml in enteric-coated enclosure.
* When the Drug Commission E is a German expert group, which deals with the efficacy and safety of medicinal plants. It was established by the legislature to introduce the medical expertise of herbal medicines in the work of the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices.

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