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Chitosan: Health Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?

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CHITOSAN: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?

Chitosan is a biopolymer, a naturally occurring Polyaminosaccharid, which is derived from chitin. It finds application in numerous industrial processes. As a supplement it is able to bind to a small extent dietary fat in the digestive tract. It is advertised as a dietary supplement and medical device for the treatment of obesity (reducing fat absorption).

Chitosan-known products are Botarin , Formoline L112, Liposorb 112 kilos or control, which are often referred to in advertising as the "fat magnet". The vendors claim chitosan can absorb the fats in the gastrointestinal tract, thus could no longer be absorbed by the body. In the sequence of decreasing cholesterol levels in the serum.

Contents [ Hide ]
1 Origin
2 properties
3 Use
3.1 Material use
3.2 Use as a dietary supplement
4 Effectiveness
5 side effects
6 Legal Situation
7 External links
8 Sources
Origin
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Chitin into chitosan obtained from the shell of shellfish, mainly shrimps, by deacetylation, in particular from the waste in the food industry. Some mushrooms contain in their cell wall chitin and chitosan in addition to which can be obtained directly from it.
Properties

Chitosan is a colorless, amorphous, viscous substance, which is capable of binding fats. This is well demonstrated in the laboratory and is used to remove as Lipidadsorbens fats and dispose of. As such, chitosan is in all member states of the EU without restriction marketable, partly also in pharmaceuticals and medical devices.
Chitosan acts continue hemostatic and coagulating, which is why it is used in medicine as a wound dressing; Moreover, it is fungicidal, abrasive (toothpaste), evening (additional paper) and binds heavy metals. The bactericidal action is not for alll types of bacteria alike.
Use

Material use
The application spectrum of chitosan is relatively broad and confusing. It is mainly used as a filter medium for water extraction or sewage treatment systems and as a raw material for fibers, foams, membranes and films (bioplastics). A market-related production of bioplastics from chitosan exists but not yet.
With its adsorbing, hemostatic, anti-microbial and healing-promoting effect of chitosan is also used in medical devices for wound dressings used. In addition, chitosan is used in toothpastes, as well as additional paper and cotton for precipitating opacities in the beverage industry. In the pharmaceutical industry has long been researched chitosan, to use it for microencapsulation and controlled release of pharmacological agents, including as a vector for gene therapy.
Use as a food supplement
Chitosan is marketed as a dietary supplement and medical device as a fat blocker in the form of tablets and capsules. For marketing as a medical device no clinical trials as drugs are necessary because chitosan is neither pharmacologically or immunologically.
Usually chitosan products are available in tablets or capsules containing 700 mg of chitosan. It is recommended to take one tablet before meals. In the Internet there are providers who claim that the 3 am bound to 16 times the weight of fat by this chitosan. But considering what is normally consumed in food fats, this amount is too low to obtain a medical effect. In a court action before the Landgericht Darmstadt [1] dated 20 August 2002, a chitosan-provider had to admit that his chitosanhaltiges product, when taken in the recommended amount to bind only 20 grams of fat is in the situation. From an anti-fat pill, as the vendors claim can be no question.
Effectiveness

Studies on the efficacy of chitosan for weight loss are not uniform. Although in vitro the fat-binding activity of chitosan is established, nevertheless shows the majority of studies have shown that the excreted with the stool amount of fat does not increase by the intake of chitosan.
There are five medical studies with a total of 386 patients who prove alleged that chitosan to greater weight loss than a placebo leads. [2] Up to ten patients, all participants but had in addition to chitosan or placebo a low calorie diet of approximately 1100 kcal per comply days. Significant weight losses were observed under both chitosan and under placebo, but in four of the five studies, this effect should have been significantly greater among chitosan than with placebo. The drug-telegram these studies reviewed, however due to massive methodological shortcomings (lack of information on chitosan dose, lack of definition of primary and secondary outcome measures, lack of power and sample size calculation and questionable randomization and blinding) as waste.
In three credible, high-quality clinical studies in which the effect of chitosan was studied without additional diet, no difference between active treatment and placebo was detected in a total of 169 patients. Chitosan had no effect on reducing body weight. [3] [4] [5]
The drug-telegram of January 2010 quoted a Cochrane review from 2008 [6] and states: [7]
"The benefit of the agent is adequately documented: In a meta-analysis of 15 randomized trials involving 1,219 obese or overweight participants who take four to a maximum of 24 weeks chitosan or placebo, only a small effect of chitosan on weight (-1.7 kg 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.1 kg to -1.3 kg) calculated if restricted to higher quality and larger studies as well as those with longer duration of therapy, the effect is even smaller (mean -0.55 kg to -. 0.81 kg). "
In summary deduce that chitosan is not likely to reduce body weight.
Side effects

The Arzneitelegramm reported two women with epilepsy who were seizure-free for several years under the medication of valproic acid, in one case in combination with phenobarbital. Within a few days after they took Chitosam for losing weight, came back to epileptic seizures. Although both their medications properly taking, they were undetectable in the blood. It is believed that the lipophilic (fat-soluble) antiepileptic drug bound in the intestine by the chitosan or of the enterohepatic circulation of valproic acid has been disturbed by the chitosan. A similar suspicious activity report is also available from Japan. In general, it can be deduced that chitosan may inhibit the absorption of lipophilic drugs (this includes hormonal oral contraceptives, the "pill"), which has its effect loss. [7] [8]
Legal situation

The Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices came in 2002 on the view that chitosan either pharmacologically or immunologically Am working but mainly in that it Absorb dietary fat. [9] This played into the hands of the Chitosananbietern, since for marketing as a medical device no clinical studies as medicinal products. Thus, the relevant medicines competent authority helped a questionable, useless product that was drawn at least of some dishes from the market by being first classified as medicinal products by the back door for marketability. In this way, save the providers million for drug approval and do not require any proof of efficacy for their proven ineffective medical product. Chitosan thus shares the market with ineffective methods such as CM3 capsules , which were also not classified as drugs but as medical devices.

A company that chitosan under the trade name Strobby® with slogans such as "The Fat-away-pill" or "fat away 10 kilos down!" had got promoted, because of this advertising legal problems. The Higher Regional Court of Karlsruhe [10] complained in 2002 not only the questionable advertising, it also confirmed the view of the Landgericht lower court that the slimming product which awarded to him by the advertising do not own: The active ingredient chitosan contained in the agent 'Strobby' may indeed have shown in laboratory experiments, a suitability to bind fats; to achieve in the disputed advertisement boldly advertised effect this is sufficient but far from sufficient. The OLG rated this as grossly misleading advertising. The publisher, who published the corresponding display also threatened legal problems. You should have seen there that the kind of praise is the advertising of medicines illegally.

Less overweight by Chitosan?

Fat sucker. According to statements from various manufacturers of chitosan products they are fat almost like a sponge to absorb and can lead to healthy weight loss. But medical evidence for this claim, there are at the present time no. How are the statements from a nutritional point of view to evaluate? NUTRITION TODAY has taken chitosan under the microscope and checked with an expert.
Chitosan is a dietary fiber that is derived from the chitin of marine crustaceans (shrimp, shrimp, and lobster shells Krebsen-). It is obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of the acetyl groups. Chitosan is a versatile material, which eg can serve and natural waxes -. Making oils water-soluble. It is also in fungi before as scaffold material. But for the production of chitosan waste the shrimp fishery are mostly used.

How does chitosan?
The mechanism of action of the substance is easy to explain: Chitosan is to have the incredible ability to swell in the gastrointestinal tract and thereby to bind dietary fat to absorb and excrete unused. It should be able to bind to fat six to eight times the amount of its own weight. This fat-complex can not be absorbed by the digestive tract. The result is therefore an excretion of undigested fats having a bowel movement. In addition, chitosan is said to have a cholesterol-lowering effect. The salts contained organic and inorganic acids will dissolve in the acidic environment of the stomach and form a gel in the alkaline region of the small intestine. These gels can fat components such as free fatty acids, bile acids, cholesterol or triglycerides bind, so they can theoretically inhibit the absorption of fat components in the body, according to the test tube. To avoid the constipation and gastrointestinal complaints, daily sufficient liquid must be drunk during a chitosan treatment.

Questionable Study
According to nutritional information is currently not scientifically proven the positive effect of chitosan preparations on body weight and fat excretion in humans. According to statements of Prof. Dr. Walter Feldheim of the University of Kiel suggests the advertising chitosan as a means fat in the gut like a magnet binds, so that it is excreted and not stored in the fat cells. Would chitosan bind significant amounts of fat in the intestine, should an increased amount of fat in the stool be detectable, so Feldheim. However, this effect could not be demonstrated, several studies. Despite taking quantities of up to five grams of chitosan daily fat excretion increased practically not. A frequently cited as evidence for the effectiveness of chitosan study shows considerable shortcomings in the study design. U. a. Unrecognized scientists the actual energy intake. The number of the subjects of this study is not representative: The number of participants was limited to 20 persons. The weight losses achieved in both the placebo and the verum group are hardly credible. Therefore Feldheim criticized the study because it is no convincing evidence for the effectiveness of chitosan. In animal studies with rats, weight reduction has been demonstrated. However, the animals were much higher Chitosandosen than they should be used in humans. The feed consisted of rats to 5% of chitosan. Transferred to the human body that would mean a daily amount of 50 grams. These high doses have not been studied in humans. It is also questionable, how to such a large amount of chitosan eat daily.

Conclusion: not very promising
that alone the fat lands by taking quasi Chitosankapseln in the toilet and not on the hips, is not medically proven and therefore not recommended for weight loss. Only when victims change their diet and exercise to excess pounds can reduce permanently. A varied mixed diet in conjunction with regular exercise is permanently effective and healthier. And it not only relieves the body weight. Also, the purse would be for one month ration Chitosankapseln costs between 30 and 100 euros.

These med Monika Magdalena flower, a physician and graduate from oecotrophologist.
German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices in Bonn:

Nutrition Today:
Keep Chitosan for health risk?

Dr. Blume:
For medical devices (CE-marking) and dietary supplements are no evidence-based efficacy studies. For capsules and pills of this kind is certainly
for the most part the placebo effect is a positive effect,
which can be very different individually, of course.
The contract notices are usually characterized more by wishful thinking than carried by clinically verified tests. Chitosan is ineffective at best for the organism. However, after taking chitosan products in people who are allergic to shellfish and crustaceans, allergies occur. People who are prone to hemorrhoids or suffering from chronic constipation should not take Chitosan.

Diet today:
What should users of chitosan products?

Dr. Blume:
Basically it should be when taking Chitosankapseln adequate fluid intake. These fiber-rich products, it is extremely important, in addition to drink at least two liters of fluid daily.
way you control gastrointestinal complaints such. example, constipation or bloating contrary.

Article Wiki Closed - CHITOSAN: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?
asked Aug 13, 2014 by Lancomega Level (10,245 points)
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