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Chitosan: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?

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CHITOSAN: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?

hitosan (pronounced "kitozane"), known under the trade name chitosan is extracted from the shells of shellfish fiber. Scientists know it as the "deacetylated chitin polymers."

LEARN ALL
1) Etymology.
2) History.
3) Origin of chitosan.
4) Chitin and chitosan.
5) The characteristics of chitosan.
6 °) properties and virtues.
7 °) Indications.
8 °) Contraindications.
9 °) Adverse.
10 °) Drug Interactions.
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1) Etymology.
The name of chitosan invented by Hoppe-Seyler in 1894, comes from the material from which it is extracted: chitin. The word "chitin" comes from a Greek word meaning "tunic", by analogy between the shells of arthropods and antique clothing.
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2) History.
There are already several centuries, the ancestors of Koreans were drying squid shells and grind them into powder for use on their injuries. Chitosan was discovered in 1859 by C. Rouget treating chitin with hydroxide potassium (or more usually caustic potash formula KOH) concentrated at high temperature. Chitosan or chitosan name was proposed by Hoppe-Seyler (1825-1895), German chemist and physiologist in 1894. Early patents for invention from Chitin were filed in 1935 by Ricardo A. under the title: "Chitin." Chitosan is used for a long time in Japan for his outstanding ability to develop a protective gel in the stomach. Today chitosan is used in cosmetics, textiles and dietary products. Future of chitosan seems to be medical. By its physico-chemical properties, chitosan is used as a mode of transport in the body for drugs or other therapeutic substances (vaccines, antigens or genes). It is used in the manufacture of microcapsules which may maintain the therapeutic substance until it reaches its physiological target (esophagus, stomach, or colon, etc.). In the last ten, chitin and chitosan have been more than ten thousand scientific publications and more than forty thousand patents.

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3) Origin of chitosan.
At the beginning of XXIst century, we are in the era of sustainable development, or shrimp production is increasing every year and international trade on seafood are increasingly important. Leftover shrimp (heads and shells) represent 50% of the fresh weight of the lobster, because of their slow biodegradability and issues biodéveloppement, the conversion of these co-products of the sea capital.
Chitin represents 17 to 33% of these co-products of fishing (shrimp, lobster ...), after cellulose is the second most abundant biopolymer in nature.

Waste shells are cleaned, dried and crushed. The resulting powder is then demineralized by hydrochloric acid, deproteinized by sodium hydroxide and then bleached with sodium hypochlorite. The product from these reactions essentially contains chitin. Chitin is then deacetylated by sodium hydroxide, which allows to obtain chitosan. The chitosan must then be split into smaller molecules that can be used in different fields, depending on their average molecular weights.

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4) Chitin and chitosan.
What differentiates the chitin chitosan, the degree of acetylation. Below 50%, the compound is called chitosan. Above, the compound is known as chitin. Chitosan is soluble in acid medium in contrast to chitin that is, it is insoluble.
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5) The characteristics of chitosan.
Chitosan is extracted from the shells of shellfish fiber. Chitosan is made ​​up of substances (water-soluble polysaccharides) that the human body can not digest. 's chitosans are characterized by -l'origine of raw material doint they come (shrimp, mushrooms, lobster ...) -their viscisité (or molecular weight). -their length and conformation of the molecular chain. -their deacetylation degree. -their purity (depends on the quantities of ash, heavy metals, and remaining proteins) including contains Chitosan copolymers of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. Its properties are similar to those of cellulose.

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6 °) properties and virtues.
The main property of Chitosan is that it absorbs very greasy materials. Indeed, chitosan has the distinction, when ingested by an individual to file a material reminiscent of a gel, on the walls of the stomach, which will protect it against fat deposits. From a chemical standpoint, Chitosan will, when in contact with the lipids, to bind with fats and capture. In fact, it actually acts as a grease trap. Chitosan can attract up to 15 times its weight of fatty material. When the chitosan and the lipids are attached, they can not be mixed in the body, and therefore, they will be removed together by natural means.
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7 °) Indications.
-Contribue To reduce the absorption of some fat in our diet.
-Participates a "very ligther" weight loss.
Ability to deploy a protective gel in the stomach (gastric acidity, ulcers, ...)
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8 °) Contraindications.
In the absence of clinical study, it should not take chitosan to pregnant or nursing women, and persons with allergies to shellfish and crustaceans.
Individuals suffering from intestinal malabsorption syndrome should not taking chitosan.
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9 °) Adverse.
Were reported constipation, but also loose stools. An arsenic poisoning cases was reported as a result of ingestion of chitosan over a long period.

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10 °) Drug Interactions.
Taking high doses of chitosan can impede the absorption of calcium, magnesium, selenium and fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K.

The e Chitosan is derived from crustacean shells , long been known in Japan , which has the remarkable ability to develop a gel in the stomach.
The Chitosan (chitin, chitosan parent molecule).
Effects of Chitosan ....
- Decreases uric acid.
- Maintaining acid-base équlibre.
- Chitosan reduces cholesterol, the risk of hypertension and cancer while stimulating the liver and immune function, and while regulating intestinal transit. It lowers the total level of LDL (bad cholesterol) and pupil level of HDL (good) cholesterol and serum triglycerides.
A ctivateur immune , stimulation of macrophage activity and the production of a large quantity of nitrogen monoxide (NO), because of its properties and those of NO, it has anti-hypertenseuses and vasodilatory properties, it inhibits platelet aggregation and platelet adhesion to the endothelium, and thus contributes to the prevention of athérasclérose.
In particular, it provides improved oxygen supply rate of 88% and a rate of removal of noxious factors of 80 %.
R égénateur cell , it promotes régénérationdes necrotic cells, enhances cell function sequence and ensure its healthy cell renewal process by promoting apoptosis.
P biological rotecteur it promotes intestinal transit, it complexes with heavy metals favoring their elimination from the body. It has anti-viral anti-bacterial anti-fungal anti-parasitic properties,,,. It is a material + ion in terms molecular structure, it combines with the ion - which is owned by harmful micro-organisms such as E. coli, staphylococcus, salmonella, and inhibits their proliferation and activation .
Metabolic regulator , positively intervenes in the metabolism of lipids, calcium, trace elements, it is an exellent vector transporter assets and nutrients.
Consumption r égulière is an excellent prevention of cardiovascular diseases and stroke .
It is a good protection against myocardial infarction and sudden stoppage of the heart .
Is recommended as a preventative for the appearance of tumors or as an effective adjuvant treatment .

To be active, it is imperative that it does work with hydrochloric acid in the stomach; as it must be taken on an empty stomach, that is to say nothing have consumed for 2 hours and then not eat anything for 30 minutes.

NB: As always, section exclusively informative . Each player uses information transmitted freely on his sole personal responsibility .

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asked Aug 13, 2014 by Lancomega Level (10,245 points)
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