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Chitosan: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?

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CHITOSAN: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?

Chitosan ( Greek. χιτών "petticoat, shell tanks"), also Poliglusam or poly- D glucosamine or polyglucosamine , is a biopolymer , a naturally occurring Polyaminosaccharid , which differs from chitin derived. Like this, it consists of β-1,4- glycosidically linked N-acetylglucosamine (exactly 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranose residues). Lying in the overall molecule more deacetylated before 2-amino-2-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranose units, it is called chitosan. Thus, linear molecules consisting of about 2000 found monomers exist. It was in 1859 by C. Rouget by boiling chitin with potassium discovered.
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Contents [ Hide ]
1 Origin
1.1 extraction
1.2 Natural occurrence
2 properties
2.1 fat binding
2.2 Binding of suspended
2.3 Other Features
3 Applications
3.1 Material use
3.2 Nutrition
4 Notes and references
5 External links
Origin [ Edit ]
Extraction [ Edit ]

The Hauptchitinquelle for the production of chitosan shells of shrimp as Pandalus borealis .
Chitosan is technically from chitin by deacetylation won. [2] This may be due (hot) hydroxide or enzymatically done. Both processes are used technically, in terms of volume is the alkaline procedure clearly to the fore.

The degree of the resulting deacetylation may vary considerably: The deacetylation may be complete or partial, resulting in a distribution of highly deacetylated can both result in little deacetylated areas or a homogeneous Deacetylierungsverteilung, which has significant effects on the molecular shape. At the same time, due to this chemical procedure, the chain length of the polymer decrease (depolymerization), which improves the solubility and the viscosity is reduced. Also (e.g.. Instance heavy metals from sodium hydroxide solution) can be introduced in the treatment of impurities. The final products may therefore differ considerably in their properties. Most clearly reveal these differences in solubility and viscosity z. B. a one percent solution of chitosan in acetic acid .

Natural occurrence [ Edit ]
Some mushrooms contain chitin and chitosan in addition to their cell wall; of them can be directly recovered chitosan. All known species such. B. Mucor rouxii , Absidia coerulea [3] and Rhizopus oryzae [4] belong to the order of Mucorales .

Properties [ Edit ]
Chitosan is a colorless , amorphous , viscous material. Industrially produced, high molecular weight chitosan in dilute strong acids except sulfuric acid and soluble in organic acids. Solubility in acids, while poor solubility in a neutral or alkaline pH is unique among the biopolymers and hence characterizing. With decreasing molar mass but also chitosan (or oligo-glucosamine) in water and even in alkaline solutions soluble.

Due to the damages caused by the deacetylation of free amino groups , it is not in alkaline solution, a polycation with a high charge density. It is non-toxic, antibacterial, antiviral and anti-allergenic. The LD 50 of chitosan is 16 g / kg body mass.

Fat binding [ Edit ]
The fat binding by chitosan can be well demonstrated in the laboratory. Several patents and laboratory test descriptions for this topic, next are more or less effective products that are based on this principle. The efficiency of the fat binding is quantitatively significant, so chitosan generally in biochemistry and disposal for removing oils , isolated in drug approvals (eg. example in Spain) and in medical products with the name of the drug Lipidadsorbens in many countries around the world, including all the member countries EU is unlimited marketable, which have been certified by independent and nationally recognized experts.

The highest fat binding capacity was in the biopolymer L112 found with about 800 times its own mass. [5]

Binding of suspended solids [ Edit ]
Chitosan is in the water treatment used in the wastewater treatment and in the beverage industry varied and industrially to bind and precipitate suspended particles.

Other properties [ Edit ]
coagulating, styptic [6]
bactericidal , but for different bacteria different [7]
fungicidally [8] [9]
abrasive (in toothpaste) [10]
smoothing (supplementary paper) [10]
Binding of heavy metals [11]
Applications [ Edit ]
Material use [ Edit ]
The application spectrum of this polymer is relatively wide and complex (similar to cellulose and other biopolymers). Chitosan is mainly used as filter medium (water extraction or in sewage treatment plants ) as well as the raw material for fibers, foams, membranes and films ( bioplastics used). Here are some of the properties in the positive range, the oxygen-barrier effect, which enables a vacuum seal. A market-related production of bioplastics from chitosan exists but not yet.

With its adsorbing, hemostatic, anti-microbial and healing effect of chitosan is also used in medical devices (eg. B. at Lipidadsorbens ( L112 ) or in dressings) used. In addition, chitosan is used in toothpastes (eg Chitodent ), as paper and cotton as well as additional to precipitate opacities in the beverage industry. In the pharmaceutical industry has long been researched chitosan, to use it for microencapsulation and controlled release of pharmacological agents, including as a vector for gene therapy .

Chitosan applications [12]
Application usable applications Research Applications
Health and Biotechnology Help to digest fats Enzyme immobilization
Cholesterol reduction Immobilization in syntheses
Lipid binder for weight control Protein Separation
Lipid separation Adsorption of endotoxins and nucleic acids
Dressing Cell enrichment
artificial skin Glucose electrode
delayed drug release Chromatography material
degradable surgical filler (orthopedics, ophthalmology, dentistry) Binding polymeric catalysts
Cell mobilization Cell immobilization (Biotechnology)
Tumor therapy, immune stimulation semipermeable membrane
artificial vessels degradable suture
artificial tear Contact lens material
Toothpaste Embedding for electron microscopy
Agriculture and food Sealing of food Coating agents
fungicidal seed treatment Seed conservation
Removal of dyes, solids, acids
Preservative for fruits and vegetables Food packaging material
Stabilizer
Food additive Fiber
Flavor
Insecticide
Feed additive Feed additive in milk production
Nematicide
Coating / sealing of seeds and leaves
Fertilization Compost acceleration
delayed release of agrochemicals
Wood preservatives
Textiles water-permeable materials
Cosmetics Dental Products
Oral care products
Hair Care Products
bacteriostatic preservative
Skin Care Products
Water treatment Distance organochemical constituents
Removal of heavy metals Wastewater treatment
DHW Juice clarification (winery)
Pool water Membranes for water desalination
Paper industry Air filtration material
Water filtration
degradable materials
Binder for recycled cellulose
Surface smoothers
Copying papers
Photo papers
Technology electronic elements Speaker diaphragm
Nutrition [ Edit ]
In dietary supplements Chitosan is a fat blocker used [13] use as a food additive, however in some countries including Germany as possibly illegal regarded (in Austria, however, it is legal) as a dietary supplement only allowed to supplement the diet, but should not impede their absorption . In the countries where chitosan may be used in the food industry, such as the United States, several have double-blind and randomized studies have shown that its effect without concomitant diet can not be detected. [14]

Chitin derivatives: chitosan
Authorized in July 2009 by the OIV and January 2011 by the European Union, chitosan appears to be an effective, easy to implement solution to fight against the Brettanomyces.
Direct access:
What is chitosan?
What is its mode of action?
What is the effectiveness of chitosan on Brettanomyces ?
How to implement it?
What other applications of chitosan in wine?
What is the cost to use?
What is chitosan?
It is a natural polymer of the family of polysaccharides such as cellulose or starch. It is derived from chitin which is found in the exoskeletons of crustaceans, insects and contributes to their rigidity. It is widely used for many years in the cosmetic and medical food agricultural sector,. The "winemaking" chitosan is non-allergenic fungal since it is produced from chitin extracted and purified from mycelium 'of Aspergillus Niger . The basic unit of the polymer is shown below.

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What is its mode of action?
The mode of action of chitosan is not fully known and appears complex. This compound is insoluble in wine, has a specific action on the yeast contamination gender Brettanomyces and has no impact in terms of fermentation on populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the kinetics of alcoholic fermentation. It seems to have an impact on the lactic acid bacteria. Therefore its application is currently recommended after MLF. Work is underway for the development of earlier treatments before malolactic fermentation .

The mechanism of action of chitosan on Brettanomyces been assumptions being validated. It is likely to act at two levels:

Specific interactions between certain groups of the chitosan and the cell membrane of Brettanomyces which cause disintegration of the membrane barrier response inducing transcriptional expression of the genome, such a stress response, which leads to cell death
adsorption of chitosan on the walls of Brettanomyces and block transfers between intra-and extra-cellular environments, and training in related sedimentation
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What is the effectiveness of chitosan on Brettanomyces ?
Many very successful on chitosan tests were conducted since 2008 by the Cooperative Wine Institute in partnership with Lallemand and Kitozyme companies. It has been shown that chitosan, used at a dose of 4 g / hl, allowed to reduce populations of Brettanomyces below the detection limit (10 CFU / ml) and even on highly contaminated wine (> 10,000 CFU / ml).

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How to implement it?
Chitosan is allowed by European regulations to the maximum dose of 10 g / hl to reduce Brettanomyces , but the usual dose for use on contaminated wine is 4 g / hl . Chitosan can use right end of malolactic fermentation, during aging and up to 15 days before bottling, the product is 100% biodegradable. The chitosan powder previously suspended in 5 to 10 times its volume of water, is incorporated in the treating vessel from the top. Given the chitosan close to that of an oenological glue mode of action, it is important to achieve a good winding homogenization, ideally the entire volume of the tank. After 10 days of sedimentation, lees are removed by performing a conventional racking, taking care to properly separate the treated wine from its lees.

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What other applications of chitosan in wine?
The OIV accepted the use of chitosan as a preventive treatment of iron hazes and coppery on musts and wines at the highest dose of 100 g / hl, the usual dose for this application ranging from 10-50 g / hl. Research has shown that the molecule also allowed to bind heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. The use of chitosan to the maximum dose of 500 g / hl to a usual dose of 200 g / hl for reducing the content of ochratoxin A wine also received validation of the OIV. In the same vein, chitosan could be of interest to remove geosmin.

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What is the cost to use?
Two commercial products are today available in the market for the elimination of Brettanomyces : this is the B Kiofine distributed by ICV and No Brett Inside distributed by the Institute of Oenology in Champagne France, and Lallemand to abroad. The cost of using these products, at a dose of 4 g / hl, ranging from 2 to 2.20 € / hl (from 500 to 550 € HT / kg).

Chitosan is a polysaccharide produced from chitin by deacetylation in the presence of concentrated sodium hydroxide solution. Chitin, meanwhile, is a major component of the shells of crustaceans such as shrimp, lobster, squid and crabs. It is up to 20 to 40% by weight of the base material. Other sources are also available, but they are less exploited.

Chitin is a renewable, biodegradable and biocompatible natural polymer when perfectly purified. Its molecular structure consists of a linear chain of units N-acetyl- β-D-glucosamine linked by 1-4. (Figure 1)

Its properties

The main properties recognized for chitosan are given in the table below:

Biocompatible
Biodegradable
Renewable
Film-Forming
Agent Moisturizing
Non-toxic, good biological tolerance
Hydrolyzed by lyzosyme therefore bioresorbable
Healing
Agent bactericide and fungicide

Like most polysaccharides, chitosan (due to the glycoside bond β (1 → 4)) is a semi-rigid and, as such, good thickening polymer; that is to say, it greatly increases the viscosity of the solvent. In particular, the possibility of formation of interchain hydrogen bonds further increases performance, up to a gel-like behavior of physical low. These interactions confer more excellent film forming properties.

Chitosan is a cationic polymer in an acid medium. This characteristic leads to the mucoadhesiveness of this polymer (Figure 2) and strong electrostatic interactions (electrostatic complex) with the surfactants of opposite charge, with numerous proteins and lipids.

Applications
The use of chitosan in the field of hair care is recent, but growing due to the intrinsic properties of the polymer. It is fixed on the hair by an electrostatic mechanism, to form an elastic surface protective hair film gives the hair and increases the flexibility of its mechanical properties. It has anti-static because of its hydrophilicity, helps maintain moisture hair with low humidity and maintains the hairstyle with high humidity. It extracts fat hair.

Chitosan is used in various skin care products for hair rinse, dyes, lacquers, shampoos, perms, creams, aerosols. It may also be used for controlled delivery of different ingredients. In addition to the electrostatic interactions must be considered fungicidal and bactericidal activities, viscosity-effects or thickeners, gelling agents, moisturizers ... Chemical modification works on which the laboratory is expected to further expand the applications of chitosan.

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