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Chitosan: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?

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CHITOSAN: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?

The chitosan or chitosan is a polysaccharide composed of the random distribution of D-glucosamine linked by ß (1-4) (deacetylated unit) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated unit). It is produced by chemical deacetylation (alkali) or enzyme of chitin , the component of the exoskeleton of arthropods ( crustaceans ) or the endoskeleton of cephalopods (squid ...) or the wall of fungi. This raw material is demineralized by treatment with hydrochloric acid , and then deproteinized in the presence of sodium or potassium hydroxide and finally bleached with an oxidizing agent. The degree of acetylation (DA) is the percentage of acetylated versus the number of total units units, it may be determined by infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR) or by titration with a strong base. The boundary between chitosan and chitin is a DA of 50%: the compound below is named chitosan, beyond chitin . Chitosan is soluble in acidic media in contrast to chitin is insoluble. It is important to distinguish between the degree of acetylation (DA) and the degree of deacetylation (DD). One being the inverse of the other that is to say, the chitosan having a DD of 85%, with 15% of acetyl groups and 85% of amino groups on the chains.

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Summary [ hide ]
1 History
2 Properties and applications of chitosan
2.1 Application in cosmetics and dietary
2.2 Application in Medicine
2.3 Other
3 Efficiency controversial
4 Production and market
5 Notes and references
6 See also
6.1 Related articles
6.2 External Links
History [ edit | edit the code ]
Chitosan was discovered in 1859 by C. Mullet treating chitin with KOH concentrated at elevated temperature. The name chitosan or chitosan was proposed by Hoppe-Seyler in 1894 is now commercially produced from waste from eating shellfish and industrial transformation of fungi. The DA commercial products ranges from 60 to 100%. It may be noted that, while chitin is produced by many organisms, chitosan has been observed that in some microorganisms. It must, according to the source and the method used, between 25 kg and 10 kg of shell to 1 kg of chitosan.

Properties and applications of chitosan [ change | change the code ]
Chitosan is biodegradable and biocompatible (particularly haemocompatible). It is bacteriostatic and fungistatic.

Application in cosmetics and dietary [ change | change the code ]
Chitosan is used in cosmetics and dietary products. It's long been known in Japan for his outstanding ability to develop a protective gel in the stomach.

Chitosan has chemical affinity with lipids , with whom he makes when he is near them. Chitosan can "fix" about 15 times its own weight of fat. This connection can be metabolized, fats would therefore not be absorbed by the body. Fats and chitosan are thus eliminated by natural means. In a therapeutic form, chitosan should, for these reasons, be taken before meals. However, this capacity depends on the type of fat. Moreover, chitosan is not soluble in media whose pH is less than 2 therefore the effectiveness of chitosan in powder form absorbed (pill or capsule) is very low and therefore restricted to the top portion of the intestine where pH is above pH 2 If chitosan limit the absorption of fat, it does not lose weight: it simply limit the intake.

Chitosan lower the total level of cholesterol LDL ("bad") cholesterol and raise levels of HDL ("good") cholesterol. It would also prevent, according to some, the onset of colon cancer .

Other dietary properties mentioned but unproven:

Promote the intestinal transit .
Decrease the uric acid .
Application in medicine [ change | change the code ]
Chitosan is currently being investigated for various applications in the field of biomaterials, including tissue regeneration and bone formation and vectorization of biologically active molecules.

Other [ change | change the code ]
Chitosan is also used for the treatment of wastewater by filtration: as it is a polymer cation , it allows complex heavy metals (coordination links), fats and certain phosphorus compounds, and reduces the turbidity of the water more effectively than sand. It also acts as a coagulant aid, reducing or eliminating products based on polyacrylamide, aluminum (alum), currently used in the treatment of wastewater (Ref: Arnold Blais chemist Marinard Biotech).

Effectiveness controversial [ change | change the code ]
Chitosan is a "sensor fat." It has the ability to interact with the digestive system of the fats and thus limit their absorption. Thus, chitosan may be an effective supplement to help weight loss during periods of regime or to stabilize it. The Cochrane meta-analysis of 2007 1 , which evaluated the available clinical trials on the effects of chitosan on weight loss, found that body weight and all parameters related to cholesterol evolved favorably after taking chitosan compared placebo. Groups of people taking chitosan, the mean difference in body weight was -1.7 kg (-2.1 to 1.3 kg), statistically significant change. In these numerous clinical studies, no specific side effects have been observed following the ingestion of chitosan. The varying quality (in terms of duration, number and characteristics of patients, doses, plan type, quality and characteristics of chitosan, etc.) clinical trials conducted to evaluate the effect of chitosan on the loss weight may explain some of the disparities in the results of clinical trials 2 and criticisms raised about the effectiveness of chitosan. In an experimental model of the stomach and duodenum comprehensive, chitosan has shown that interacted with the oil, which limited absorption in the duodenum and improved lipid excretion 3 . However, the mechanism of interaction between chitosan and the lipid is still unknown. While some critics argue that the amended version of chitosan stops the absorption of some minerals, several animal studies contradict this claim by showing little or no effect. In mice, ingestion of chitosan did not decrease the level of iron, zinc or copper 4 . Furthermore, there is no evidence in man of adverse side effects, in particular on the absorption of nutrients.

Production and Market [ change | change the code ]
In 2003, there were about 65 producers of chitosan in the world, 95% use crustaceans as a source of raw materials 5 , it can also be produced from certain plants. The chitosan market is growing thanks to applications increasingly numerous. For example, in 2000, sales of tablet based on chitosan for weight loss in the United States were estimated at $ 6 million.

Indications
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Potential Effectiveness
Contribute to weight loss in conjunction with changes in lifestyle.
See legend of symbols
Uncertain effectiveness
Help lower blood lipids.
Dosage of chitosan
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Weight Loss

Deacetylated chitosan (a minimum of 89%). Take 3 g to 6 g per day, with meals in divided doses.
note. products that have demonstrated efficacy have a molecular weight of about 40 kDa or less. However, with few exceptions, this information is not stated on the label (see the opinion of our pharmacist).
Description chitosan
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The chitosan (pronounced "kitozane") is extracted from the shells of fiber crustaceans . It consists of substances (water-soluble polysaccharides) that the human body can not digest. Its properties are similar to those of cellulose.

The chitosan is best known for its alleged virtues diet , which explains its presence in many products for losing weight. Chitosan binds to fatty acids and sterols in the intestine and facilitates their removal, provided they are sufficiently deacetylated and have a low molecular weight (see notice of our pharmacist).

However, some supplement manufacturers claim that chitosan go up most consumed fat would simply be excreted through ... taking chitosan. Five studies published between 2001 and 2005 showed that these allegations are false : the daily consumption of chitosan has increased excretion of fat negligibly 1-5 ​​.

History of chitosan
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The therapeutic use of chitosan is very recent. So far, its uses were limited to industries cosmetics and textiles . But it is currently the subject of intense research in the fields of medical technology and pharmacology.

It seems that the chitosan is in the process of finding its usefulness in conventional medicine as "vehicle" of drugs or other therapeutic substances (vaccines, antigens or genes). It is used, for example, for making microcapsules which can maintain the therapeutic substance until it reaches its physiological target (esophagus, stomach, or colon, etc.).

Research on Chitosan
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Potential Effectiveness Weight loss . The authors of a systematic review published in 2008 polled 15 placebo-controlled studies (1219 participants) that measured the effectiveness of chitosan on weight loss 6 . When all tests are taken into account, chitosan is more effective than placebo in the treatment of overweight and obesity. However, several studies are of poor methodological quality. The authors point out that if we use the most reliable trials the effect of chitosan is minimal, a weight loss of 0.6 kg after treatment for 4 weeks to 6 months 6 .

Furthermore, a study seems to confirm the assumption that, to be effective, taking chitosan should be accompanied by a change in lifestyle (diet, exercise) 7.15 . Thus, for 4 months, 60 overweight subjects with a level of cholesterol was high took either a placebo or chitosan, while eight hours of exercise per week. Chitosan combination and exercise was more effective than exercise alone in reducing weight, blood lipids and markers of metabolic syndrome 16 .

Uncertain effectiveness Reducing blood lipids. According to the authors of the systematic review mentioned above 6 , there was a positive, but insignificant, the chitosan on blood lipid levels, in 9 trials on weight loss 6 . The tests concerned specifically on blood lipids have yielded inconclusive results 7-10 insignificant or small declines, often clinically 11-13 . The authors of a meta-analysis published in 2009 examined six trials with a total of 416 subjects. They conclude that chitosan does not reduce the levels of triglycerides in the blood and its effect on total cholesterol is modest 14 .

Miscellaneous. During a study conducted in Japan, taking chitosan for 4 weeks reduced markers of oxidative stress in healthy subjects 17 .

Precautions
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Watch out
Some animal data indicate that in the long term, taking high doses of chitosan can impede the absorption of calcium, magnesium, selenium and vitamins A, D, E and K 18.19 . As a precaution, it is recommended not to take chitosan long term.

Cons-indications
Children and pregnant women and nursing mothers.
Use with caution in people allergic to shellfish.
Adverse effects
There have been reported cases of constipation, but also loose stools.
A case of poisoning by arsenic has been reported following the ingestion of chitosan over a long period 20 .
Interactions
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With plants or supplements
None known.
With drugs
None known.
The opinion of our pharmacist
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The term "chitosan" is a family of derivatives of chitin, the main component of the shells of shellfish (shrimp, crab, etc.). This is a huge chitin polymer (a combination of simple molecules smaller mass, called monomers) that the body is unable to digest. So it can be used for the removal of cholesterol and fatty acids, it must necessarily meet two criteria.

First, it must be deacetylated (a minimum of 89%) in order to bind to cholesterol or fatty acids in the intestine, or the chitosan can not contribute to the elimination of these substances. In the market, the degree of deacetylation of products varies greatly and is unfortunately often not indicated on the label or in the studies.

The second essential feature of the effectiveness of chitosan refers to the size of the polymer. If the polymer is too large, since the transformation of the chitin is only a fine grinding, it can have no effect because it is insoluble and can not bind to the molecules of fatty acids and cholesterol in intestine. The chitosan should have a low molecular weight in kilodaltons (kDa) to be soluble and active. The molecular weight of different chitosans on the market ranges from 25 kDa to 450 kDa. Those who have demonstrated efficacy have a molecular weight of about 40 kDa or less , but with few exceptions, this information is not stated on the product label.

There are still a lot of confusion regarding chitosan because, regardless of the molecular weight and degree of deacetylation, all chitin derivatives have the same name. Most research and, even worse, meta-analyzes are therefore studying ineffective products without distinguishing them from those that may be of therapeutic interest. As such, there is evidence of a slightly superior to placebo in weight loss. For cons, the mechanism of action of chitosan in weight loss remains unclear.

On the shelves
In the early 2000s, British and American authorities have prosecuted for misleading advertising several manufacturers and distributors of slimming products containing chitosan . The criticisms included to showcase their products as preventing the accumulation of fat in the body without having to exercise or to eat adequately 19 .

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asked Aug 13, 2014 by Lancomega Level (10,245 points)
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