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Nettle: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?

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NETTLE: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?

The nettles ( Urtica ) are a kind of family Urticaceae which includes about thirty species of herbaceous plants with hairy leaves. They are found in Europe, including 11 in France 5.

The most common species are the stinging nettle ( Urtica dioica , 50 cm to 1 meter, perennial) and stinging nettle ( Urtica urens , less than 50 cm annually). pilulifera Urtica ( nettle pill , Stinging nettle ) is found in the south and west of France, Urtica membranacea ( membranous nettle ) is found in the Mediterranean south and Urtica atrovirens only in Corsica .
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The stinging nettle and stinging nettle (leaves and roots) are recognized as part of medicinal plants most useful and most effective. The leaves are commonly used as tonic , depurative, diuretic , anti-inflammatory (rheumatic pain) 1 . The stinging nettle is also widely used for food, industrial (for fiber) and agricultural (as that green fertilizer and insecticide ).

Summary [ hide ]
1 History
2 Main Features
3 Power urticant
4 Uses
4.1 Use as fertilizer
4.2 Use food
4.3 Use as a forage
5 Key species of the genus Urtica
6 Other plants called nettle
7 Predators
8 Nettles in language
9 Appendices
9.1 References
9.2 Related articles
9.3 External Links
History [ edit | edit the code ]
This herb is a commonplace herb powerful. It is mineralizing , hemostatic , purifying , galactagogue , diuretic ...

Main Features [ change | change the code ]

Female flowers

Male flowers
They are herbaceous plants with leaves opposite elliptic shaped, toothed, growing on rich soils. The whole plant is covered with hair stinging .

The flowers are separate male and female, is on the same footing (plants monoecious ) or on separate plants (plants dioecious ).
Female flowers are greenish and hanging rolled into inflorescences more or less tight, depending on the species: panicled , ears , clusters ...
The male flowers are yellowish and have a horizontal and spreading habit or cob. Stamens, bent in the corolla , suddenly relax during fertilization and spread a cloud of pollen on the female flowers 2 .

Female flower, detail

Fruit

Male flower, detail

Stinging power [ change | change the code ]

Needles stinging hairs
Hair stinging contain the formic acid , the histamine , the acetylcholine and serotonin that irritate the skin . These hairs have at their end a tip of silica that can penetrate the skin of animals who approach too. The stinging hairs of the nettle are as fragile as glass. They break as the end of the ampoules and injecting into the skin the histamine which causes redness.

Use [ change | change the code ]
Use as fertilizer [ change | change the code ]
Nettle allows the manufacture of nettle manure 3 , by macerating chopped nettles in water for a few days away from the light. It serves as a fungicide (against mildew), insecticide (against aphids and mites) and activator or plant growth regulator.

Some sources claim that the nettle without feed the plant or fight against insects, could stimulate plant growth 4 , which might actually mean it promotes soil biological activity (see in this regard, work of Claude and Lydia Bourguignon ).

Nettle soup
Food use [ change | change the code ]
Nettles are edible. They are excellent in soup , soufflés or instead of spinach , including pizza.

Nettles to dry for fodder
Use as fodder [ change | change the code ]
Raw ground, nettle can be given to poultry; young and subject to desiccation may be given to cattle appreciate.

Main species of the genus Urtica [ change | change the code ]

Tree nettle ( Urtica ferox )

Urtica membranacea

Urtica pilulifera
Urtica angustifolia
Urtica ardent
Urtica atrovirens Req. ex Loisel. - blackish nettle , nettle Dodart ( Corsica , Sardinia , Italy and the Balearic Islands )
Urtica baccifera ( Central America )
Urtica cannabina L. - hemp nettle leaf (West Asia of Iran to Siberia )
Urtica chamaedryoides Pursh
Urtica dioica L. - stinging nettle , stinging nettle or common nettle
Urtica ferox G.Forst. - ongaonga , Nettle Ttree ( New Zealand )
Urtica pronto
Urtica hyperborea Jacq. ex Wedd., 1856 (in the Himalayas , from Pakistan to Bhutan , Mongolia and Tibet , high altitudes)
Urtica incisa Poir. ( Australia )
Urtica mairei
Urtica membranacea Poir. - nettle membrane (Mediterranean)
Urtica parviflora
Urtica pilulifera L. - nettle pill , Stinging nettle .
Urtica platyphylla Wedd. (North and center of Japan )
Urtica sicula
Urtica simensis Hochst. ex A. Rich.
Urtica thunbergiana
Urtica urens L. - small nettle , stinging nettle
Other plants called nettle [ change | change the code ]
Other plant species have also received the common name of "nettle" because of their resemblance with nettles. Are thus known white, red, yellow nettles, which belong to the genus Lamium (the cutter bar ) of the family Lamiaceae . These plants differ from their real nettle stem square and their colorful flowers zygomorphic .

nettle = white dead nettle , Lamium album L.
Nettle yellow = yellow cutterbar , Lamium galeobdolon (L.) L.
nettle red = purple dead nettle , Lamium purpureum var. purpureum L.
= dead nettle white dead nettle , Lamium album L. or spotted dead nettle, Lamium maculatum (L.) L.
Spotted dead nettle nettle = spotted, Lamium maculatum (L.) L.
Nettle bourbière = épiaire Marsh ( Stachys palustris )
= stinking nettle épiaire woods ( Stachys sylvatica )
= nettle Galeopsis tetrahit, Galeopsis tetrahit L.
Predators [ change | change the code ]

Caterpillar Arctia caja on nettle leaf
The butterflies night ( moths following) (sorted by type) feed nettle:

shell hare
tortoiseshell marten ( Arctia caja )
gold brocade (Geometridae)
transient
seve golden-green (Noctuidae).

Nettles in the language [ change | change the code ]
"Throw the frock to the nettles" renounce the monastic or ecclesiastical. In his song The Disbeliever , Georges Brassens is a cassock in the nettles. In this expression, habit is to take the old sense of the word that appears around 1160 to refer to the part of the habit of monks that covers the head, shoulders and chest. From the xvii th century, the word is used to name the monastic habit as a whole, but it is only xx th century slang word gets to replace trousers . This expression tends to become obsolete, given the scarcity of religious vocations in France.

"Do not push grandma in the nettles" or "Do not push granny in the nettles" means: do not exaggerate. This expression is used to alert someone that he will cross the line, make a provocation too.
Francis Cabrel also named his twelfth album and the seventh title of the last roses and nettles .
Victor Hugo says nettle in his poem I like the spider , in which he defends the marginalized beings in society by identifying the spider and nettle.

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