BLACK COHOSH: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?
What Actaea racemosa the?
The black cohosh is a perennial plant of the buttercup family that grows in the eastern and central regions of the United States. It was used by Native Americans as a traditional folk remedy against female problems such as painful periods and hot flashes but also against the arthritis , the muscle aches , the sore throat , the cough and indigestion . The juice of the plant is used as an insect repellent and made into an ointment, it can be applied to snakebites.
Virtues of the Black cohosh:
The black cohosh may be effective in some cases of amenorrhea and helps regulate menstruation.
It also supports in regulating acidity in the stomach and helps to improve the absorption of nutrients and elimination of waste. It also dilates peripheral blood vessels and thus can improve the blood pressure . There are several years, doctors have used black cohosh to treat serious infectious diseases such as whooping cough , scarlet fever, and smallpox, but it is gradually disappearing today.
Black cohosh dosage:
For the symptoms of menopause , black cohosh dose used in the studies is between 20 and 40g twice daily. Excessive doses of black cohosh can cause seizures, visual disturbances and slow or irregular heartbeat. In addition, the quality and purity of the products of black cohosh will establish a suitable dose. It is advisable to follow exactly the prescribed dose and do not exceed the maximum recording time of 6 months. Always favor products whose origin is certain and verifiable and stop immediately taken in case of problems.
Why use Actaea racemosa:
The black cohosh is one of the herbal remedies of the most popular plants for symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes , night sweats, headaches, mood disorders, the palpitations and vaginal dryness .
A Studies also suggest that black cohosh can help to reduce the inflammation associated with the osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. The researchers concluded that the combination of black cohosh in the bark of willow and poplar bark could help relieve the symptoms of the arthritis .
Side Effects and Warnings against Black cohosh:
Black cohosh is an herb that is used in the long term, it has a specific curative action. Because of its popularity to its effects on menopausal symptoms , many women feel that it is good to eat in the long run, but that is not the case. Black cohosh should not be used for a maximum period of 6 months. This period of time suggested is the same for women who choose to use it for problems of fertility. It is best to seek advice from a qualified herbalist and see your doctor before starting taking Black cohosh.
Cimicifugae racemosae rhizoma - Black Cohosh rhizome
Parent plant: Actaea racemosa L. [ Fam. Ranunculaceae / Buttercup Family ]; . Cohosh Synonyms: Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) N UTT . Notice: The correct current valid botanical name corresponds to the originally introduced by Linnaeus name. However, the species was already 1818 by the American botanist Nuttall of the genus Cimicifuga W ERNISCH assigned. This arrangement had by the end of the 90s validity. In 1998, by Compton and coworkers was the type in particular on the basis of molecular biological studies (trnL-F sequence data nrDNA ITS and cpDNA data) back to the original genus Actea assigned.
Currently, the situation is that the black cohosh unchanged better under the old name Cimicifuga racemosa is known as under the currently valid name. Other, less well-known and common synonyms are Actaea gyrostachya W ENDER , Actaea orthostachya W ENDER , Actaea monoyna W ALT ., Botrophis actaeoides R AFIN ., Botrophis serpentaria , Christophoriana canadensis racemosa G Ouan , Cimicifuga racemosa (T ORR ) B ART ., Cimicifuga serpentaria P URSH , Macrotis octroides , Macrotis raceomosa S weet , Macrotis serpentaria . Dt. Synonyms: American, black, wild snake root, American high congestion ended Christoph herb, black cohosh, rattlesnake weed, consumption root, black cohosh, grape-like Comfrey, Black Cohosh. Englisch: Black cohosh. Other, less common English names are Black snakeroot, bugbane, bugwort rattleroot, rattletop, rattle-snakeroot, rattleweed, richweed and squawroot.
Botanical description of the plant root: The Black Cohosh is a perennial plant that is an average of 1 m to 1.50 m high and up to a maximum 2 meters can be high. The above-ground parts die off in the fall. As wintering organ serve the roots and rhizome, and of growing in size from 3 years of age. The stem is erect and leafy. The leaves are relatively large and three times pinnate, the leaflets cut sharp and deep. Depending on the age of the plant, the stems branched in the upper part in single to numerous inflorescences. These are narrow, long, candle-like grapes (origin of the German name) with numerous white flowers. The perianth consists of a four-leaf calyx and small petals that fall immediately after flowering. Thus one finds in full bloom only the numerous stamens with their equally white stamens and anthers. There is only one ovary with sedentary scar from the developing egg-shaped capsules containing numerous flat seeds.
Distribution: Native to the eastern states of the USA and in Ontario. The western boundary of the range is Missouri, the southern border in Georgia. You can meet preferably in shady, rocky sites.
Drug: The dried, collected after the fruit ripening rhizome with the roots.
Description of the drug: The rootstock is up to 15 cm long and up to 2 cm thick, dark brown, längsfurchig, rough, hard and knotty little curled, so that he appears altogether becomes quite irregular. At the top he wears numerous roundish scars and remnants of the former stems. On the bottom of the spring to 3 mm thick, längsfurchigen, dark brown, slightly crashing roots. The break is horny and fibrous. The average drug consists of the dark brown, rough, irregularly shaped Wurzelstockstückchen and numerous thin, dark brown and längsfurchigen Wurzelstückchen. In the cross section of the broken pieces of the rhizome is a horn-like, wide, dark colored marks can be seen in the middle. The wooden body is whitish or reddish brown and with different width, wedge-shaped vessel parts. The bark is thin, dark and horny.
Smell and taste: Strangely, overall quite uncharacteristic odor and a bitter, sharp astringent taste.
Synonyms drug names: German: Cimicifuga rhizome, blue cohosh, North American snake root, Black Cohosh root. Englisch: Black cohosh, rattleroot. Latin: Radix (Rhizoma) Actaeae racemosae, Radix Christophorianae americanae, Radix Cimicifugae racemosae, Radix Cimicifugae serpentariae, Radix Serpentariae racemosae, Rhizoma Cimicifugae .
Origin: At the present time almost exclusively from wild collection in North America. Cultivation projects in Germany are so far. Market for the whole of subordinate importance
Extraction of the drug: The collection takes place in the fall. The entire underground organs are excavated and then freed of foreign matter and fiber roots. After washing the wet drug is cut into thick pieces and dried in the sun.
Ingredients: The active ingredients of the drug are not known until today. Based on the results of numerous pharmacological investigations is believed that occurring in a relatively large amount of triterpene glycosides and the phenolic compounds are substantially responsible for the effect. The representatives of both classes of compounds are characterized by a relatively unusual structure. The triterpene glycosides are numerous groupings oxygen compounds from Cycloartan type. At the carbon atom 3 of the aglycone a xylose molecule in the plurality of compounds bound to a molecule with further compounds arabinose. Haupttriterpenglykoside are the actein and the 23- epi -Desoxyactein -26 (according to old nomenclature referred to as 27-Desoxyactein). In addition to these, numerous other compounds occur, mainly in the position and linkage of the oxygen atoms in the side chain at C-17 are different (see, eg, the Actaeaepoxid-3- O -SS- D -xylopyranosid ). The phenolic constituents are predominantly esters of ferulic and isoferulic acid with a phenolic Bicarbonsäurealkohol, the Fukiinsäure or Piscidinsäure . The most important compounds of this type are Fukinolsäure and Cimicifugasäuren, including the F Cimicifugasäure addition to it being more Cimicifugasäuren and free. ferulic and isoferulic acid and caffeic acid . Additional ingredients : Small amounts of flavonoids , tannins , resins, fatty acids, starch and sugars. At issue is still the presence of the isoflavone formononetin. Means of several analytical methods including HPLC-MS, was in black cohosh rhizome originating from 13 different locations in the USA, and can be detected in the finished drug Remifemin and CimiPure no formononetin (Kennelly et al.). In contrast, cites a recently published work (Panossian et al.) Has a content from 3.1 to 3.5 micrograms per gram of drug. Detection was there but only by thin layer chromatography. Here in the chromatogram of the test solution entered a substance band at a matching with formononetin Rf value could also be quantified by fluorescence detection. Isolation and structure elucidation of the component concerned has not taken place. Likewise Failure to provide proof that the substance of this band underlying has an identical with formononetin emission maximum. For this reason, in this work again postulated the presence of formononetin in the rhizome of black cohosh appears unchanged very unlikely.
Effects: Traubensilberkerzenrhizom has a total estrogenic effect and thus improves menopausal symptoms . The drug has been studied intensively in recent years. The currently available data suggest that the effect is not caused by a direct attack on estrogen receptors but by a so-called selective estrogen receptor modulation (SERM), the interaction with the tissue-specific Koeffektoren of receptors is crucial. This theory also explains that by extracts of black cohosh only individual estrogen-like effects are produced and the wide range of side effects of estrogens is not expected. In this respect, black cohosh of the so-called phytoestrogens, which are contained in plants such as red clover and soy, mostly from chemical point of view is different isoflavones represent and by direct attack to the estrogen receptors at comparable dosage and the same potential for side effects such as the have synthetic estrogens. Furthermore, the drug is designed to help hair loss. According to the results of a recent release both the number of growing hairs and increased the number of hair falling out is to be reduced. Furthermore, a slight increase in the thickness of the hair was observed. The latter effect is not so far been used therapeutically and requires no doubt further investigation.
Indications: Premenstrual and dysmenorrhoische and climacteric -related neurovegetative complaints. However, their main significance of the drug in the latter indication. The efficacy for the treatment of menopausal symptoms could be demonstrated in several clinical studies. In these studies it has been shown that especially the perceived as particularly burdensome hot flashes as well as further sweating, insomnia and mental ailments depressed mood, nervousness, irritability, General performance and memory impairment are significantly improved. No appreciable influence seems to have the drug on somatic complaints and atrophic.
Folk Applications: Tinnitus and special rheumatic diseases. The efficacy of these applications is missing.
Contraindications: None known.
Adverse effects: triterpene glycosides have generally irritating to mucous own sheep. Therefore, occasionally stomach upset occurs. Surveys of patients in the clinical studies show that the compatibility is considered very good.
Interactions with other medicines: None known.
Posology and method of administration: The average daily dose for a drug amount of 40 mg. They are used exclusively in the form of special extracts, prepared with water-ethanol or water-isopropanol mixtures. The effectiveness is apparently not only dependent on the nature of the extract means but also on the type of extraction (maceration, digestion, percolation) and their duration. For this reason, only finished products should be used, their effectiveness has been demonstrated in several clinical studies. The preparations must be taken over a longer period, since the improvement of the symptoms of menopausal symptoms usually occurs only after at least a one-month application.