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Acerola: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?

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ACEROLA: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?

The acerola ( Malpighia emarginata , syn. of Malpighia glabra ) is a tree whose fruit is called cherry of Barbados or cherry Antilles as much like the cherry .

The name "acerola" comes from the Arabic 'az-zou'roûr or' az-zucrur 'and was given to the plant by the conquistadores Spanish [ref. needed] .

Acerola is a great natural source of vitamin C.

Summary [ hide ]
1 Description
2 Composition
3 Properties
4 Directions
5 Jobs
6 Notes and references
7 External links
7.1 Malpighia punicifolia
7.2 Malpighia glabra
Description [ change | change the code ]
Shrub (or small tree ) in evergreen of the family Malpighiaceae , acerola grows wild in the tropics' of South America , including Peru and the Amazon forests of Brazil and Venezuela . It is also present in the Caribbean where it is called cherry country .

The leaves are opposite, oval or elliptical and ending in a sharp point.

The flowers , bright red, open three times a year. They are grouped in inflorescences lobe auxilliary.

The fruit of acerola is edible and tartness. The fruits ripen shortly after flowering. Sensitive to heat, their conservation requires great care.

Composition [ change | change the code ]
The fruit of the acerola is considered a superfruit because it contains 20-30 times more vitamin C than the orange . This makes it one of the richest fruits in vitamin C ( 1000 mg to 2000 mg / 100 g ), after the fruit of Terminalia ferdinandiana (50x) and that of Camu-Camu ( Myrciaria dubia ) (30-40x) 1 . It is also rich in vitamin B6 in vitamin B1 and vitamin A as well as flavonoids and minerals ( iron , calcium , phosphorus , potassium and magnesium ).

Properties [ change | change the code ]
His interest as a source of vitamin C has caught the attention of scientists in the 1950s, however, acerola is not only an exceptional source of vitamin C, it also contains high levels of phosphorus and calcium, vitamins B group ( thiamin , riboflavin , pyridoxine ) and antioxidants factors including flavonoids and anthocyanins 2 .

Indications [ change | change the code ]

Focus on flowers and green fruits
Acerola extracts are used for their tonic, stimulant and anti-infectious. Their mineral wealth brings remineralizing properties. Their high concentration of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), vitamin E , flavonoids , anthocyanins and carotenoids gives the fruit properties antioxidant and stimulating the production of collagen 2 .

Jobs [ change | change the code ]

Acerola
In Brazil , where the tree is grown, fruits are consumed as juice. The Indians of the Amazon rainforest use against the diarrhea and disorders liver .

In medicine, the fruit of the acerola is used in powder form and is indicated in asthenia functional and to facilitate weight regain after weight loss. In general, it is prescribed during cooling against fatigue and 3 .

Common Names: acerola cherry country, acerola, Barbados cherry, siriz Botanical Name: Malpighia glabra, Malpighia punicifolia English names: Acerola fruits, Antilles cherry, Barbados cherry, Puerto Rican cherry, West Indian cherry.

Parts used: fruit.

Habitat and origin: tropical areas of South America, particularly in Brazil and the Caribbean.

Indications
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Processing
Potential Effectiveness
Fights bacterial infections
Stimulates the immune system
Combat hypercholesterolemia
Combat certain cancers
See legend of symbols
Recognized use
Combat dysentery, anemia and scurvy

Dosage
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There is not enough scientific data to determine the dosage in children and adolescents, and adults (18 and over). No toxic effects have been reported to date but it is advised not to consume large amounts of acerola (above 1 g / day of pulp) due to its high content of vitamin C. A study in 2011 reported no adverse effects in participants who consumed daily 100 ml of diluted juice acerola containing 50 mg of vitamin C (Uchida, 2011).

Historical and traditional uses
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Acerola grows in dry forests of South America and can reach 5 meters. It produces red fruits that resemble the European cherry. The acerola juice obtained from the fruit is very popular in South America. The fruits are also eaten for fever and dysentery ( infectious disease of the colon) . The very high vitamin C content of acerola makes an exceptional food to boost the immune system to prevent or treat scurvy. It is also consumed as a dietary supplement for anemia (Derse, 1954) or, conversely, in people with diabetes or high cholesterol.

Ingredients
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Acerola is a very important source of natural vitamin C, with a content of 10 to 40 times more than oranges. The average amount of vitamin C is 1.8 g per 100 g of pulp of acerola with oscillating between 1 and 2.3 g per 100 g of pulp (Visentainer 1997) levels. Vitamin C levels depend on the ripeness of the fruit (an overripe fruit contains less vitamin C), the season of harvest, and climate (Clein, 1956; Enfoque, 1993). Acerola also contains twice as magnesium, potassium and vitamin B5 as orange. It also contains vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B3 (niacin) comparable to those of other fruit concentrations. It also contains iron, phosphorus and protein and beta-carotene and polyphenols which are powerful antioxidants (Leme, 1973 Hanamura, 2005).

Research
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Anti-inflammatory activity . A study in vitro showed that decreases inflammation acerola on macrophages (immune system cells) cultured (Wakabayashi, 2003)

Anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity . Antibacterial activity was reported by Japanese researchers on the strain Staphylococcus epidermidis (Motohashi, 2004). Furthermore, a team guatémaltaise analyzed the activity of several plants sudaméricaines on pathogenic fungi. It appears that the Acerola is one of the most effective against these fungi (Caceres, A, 1993).

Anti-cancer activity. Motohashi research in 2004 also showed that extracts of acerola have a toxic effect on tumor cell lines, suggesting that this fruit may have anti-cancer properties. Another study shows that acerola extract (700 mg / kg) blocks the growth of cancer cells in a mouse model (Nagamine, 2002).

Obesity and hypercholesterolemia. A study on endothelial cells showed that acerola, combined with extracts of alfalfa and soybeans, blocks lipoprotein oxidation of small density (LDL for short), considered the bad cholesterol ( Hwang, J., 2001). This protective effect may be due in part to its high content of vitamin C (Clein, 1956; Enfoque, 1993). Another study shows that acerola can fight against the harmful effects of obesity on the body: the mice were subjected to a diet rich in fat and sugar and then exposed or not with acerola for 13 weeks. The results indicate that the plant protects blood cells and those of certain organs (kidneys, liver) toxic effects of this diet. This protective effect is probably due to the antioxidants (vitamin C, polyphenols) present in acerola (Leffa, 2013).

Precautions
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Watch out

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Acerola is avoided in patients:

gout because it can increase the levels of uric acid
with a history of kidney stones (nephrolithiasis) as acerola may increase the formation of these stones.
Cons-indications

Acerola is against-indicated in those who are allergic to acerola or its ingredients ( De Assis, 2002 ).
Adverse effects

There by clinical studies of good quality with reported adverse effects of acerola. However, the scientific community believes that it is not dangerous at recommended doses. Large amounts of acerola (above 1 g / day) may nevertheless cause side effects such as diarrhea, nausea and dyspepsia (abdominal pain), because of its high content of vitamin C.

Interactions
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With plants or supplements

The acerola may increase:

antioxidant of alfalfa and soybeans effect (Hwang, J., 2001);
iron absorption in the gastrointestinal tract;
the amount of vitamin C in the blood of those consuming extra vitamin C.
With drugs

Acerola, due to its high content of vitamin C may interact with the following medications:

Antiplatelet drugs or anticoagulants such as warfarin (Coumadin) (G Rosenthal, 1971);
Estrogens, which may enhance absorption (Back, 1981 Morris, 1981);
Fluphenazine (PROLIXIN®), it can reduce the effectiveness.

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