DAMIANA: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?
Damiana ( Turnera diffusa ) is a flowering plant in the genus of Safranmalven ( Turnera ). Its natural range extends from southern North America to Argentina. This species is known mainly because of their ascribed effect as a natural aphrodisiac .
Contents [ Hide ]
3 Etymology and nomenclature
6 External links
7 Notes and references
Description [ Edit ]
Damiana is a commonly much branched, small shrub , reaching the heights of growth of 1 to 2 meters. All plant parts are finely hairy or fluffy.
The leaves are very variable in size and Spreitenform. The spectrum ranges from lanceolate, about spatulate to obovate. In general, the leaves are 1-2 inches long. The leaf margin serrate or crenate. The base is wedge-shaped. The leaf veins run along the leaf surface. They are sunk. The leaf hairs are heaped on the ribs.
The hermaphrodite flowers are very short-stalked, nearly sessile. The chalice is pentadentate. The petals are spatulate and bright yellow. They are 4-8 mm long and project beyond the calyx teeth much. The flowering period extends from early to late summer.
The round-oval, with a diameter between 1.5 and 2 mm, capsule fruit smells sweet and tastes like a coward; she is single chamber and opens dreiklappig.
Ingredients [ Edit ]
In particular, the leaves contain many terpenes , including cineol , arbutin , cadinene , Damianin , p-cymene , pinene and thymol , but also tannin and caffeine .  The essential oils of the plant are highly volatile. The smell of the leaves is aromatic and the taste bearable.
Distribution [ Edit ]
Damiana loves dry, rocky open sites . Often they can be found on limestone cliffs on or in mixed forests at altitudes from 500 to 1950 meters.
In the north the range extends up to the United States. There is this kind in California and Texas. To the south, the range extends throughout Central America, through the Caribbean islands to Argentina. Focus of spreading lie in the Baja California and northern Mexico. In Guatemala, this species is rare.
Etymology and systematics [ Edit ]
The common name Damiana is derived from the patron saint of pharmacists, St. Damian .
The scientific name of the genus Turnera honors the British ornithologist and botanist William Turner (1510-1568 to). The specific epithet diffusa comes from the Latin and means spread. It was chosen because of the often widely branched growth image. 
In addition to the valid scientific names exist following synonyms : Turnera aphrodisia LFWard, Turnera aplirodisiaca Willd. Turnera hlirrlifiisa Endl. and Turriera pringlei Rose. The spread in the Baja California Damiana was by Ignatz Urban as a variety Turnera diffusa var. aphrodisiaca described (Ward) Urban, this view is, however, no longer followed in the rule. 
The first description of Turnera diffusa was made in 1820 by Carl Ludwig von Willdenow in Josef August Schultes : Systema Vegetabilium ., 6, p 679  Turnera diffusa is standard Microphyllae Urb. in the genus Turnera in the subfamily Turneroideae within the family Passifloraceae .
Use [ Edit ]
The leaves are harvested during the flowering period to derive the pharmaceutical drug to win.
Especially in Mexico Damiana is a popular medicinal herb. There it is under the name Misibcoc or Chac-Mixib used to cure colds, infectious diseases or disorders of the blood vessels. For this, a tea is prepared or flavored liqueur with the leaves of dried leaves. The dried leaves can also be found in markets in Mexico and Guatemala. Smaller amounts come on the market in the United States and Europe, there is Damiana as a medicinal plant but relatively unknown.
Mahinda Martínez claims in his book Las Plantas Medicinales de México that Damiana already at the Mayans traditionally as an aphrodisiac and tonic was used.  Christian Rätsch describes the plant in the Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants as a reliable means in cases of sexual impotence, especially if this impotence was due to an excess of sexual activity. Damiana would, however, also used for treating spermatorrhea (semen flow without sexual excitement) and orchitis (inflammation of the testes). 
Thomas P. Lowry writes in the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs , he had women reported that the plant had cramps a relaxing effect on menstrual pain and. 
Damiana but also as drug use and aphrodisiac. Bert Marco Schuldes reported in his book Psychoactive Plants of erotic stimulation, a gain of erotic feelings and skin sensitivity.  However, so far no scientific evidence to confirm such effects.  However, studies indicate an outgoing of Damiana anti-progesterone effect what at least could explain the herb attributed to increasing libido.