SAW PALMETTO: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?
The saw palmetto ( Serenoa repens ) is a native to the southeastern United States palm . It is the only species of the genus Serenoa . Be made of their fruits herbal against benign prostatic won.
Contents [ Hide ]
1.4 Fruits and seeds
2 Dissemination and Locations
5.1 Notes and references
6 Further reading
7 External links
Features [ Edit ]
Saw Palmetto is a hermaphrodite fan palm . She is multi-stemmed, grows bushy and reaches heights of growth of one to three meters  . The stems are prostrate and creeping underground or on the surface. They seldom stand upright. The stems are covered with persistent leaf sheaths. The palm is reinforced.
From axillary buds arise either inflorescences or vegetative side shoots.
The chromosome number is 2n = 36th
Leaves [ Edit ]
The leaves are induplicat, fan-shaped and remain dead on the plant (Marzeszenz). The leaf sheath increases in a mat of dark brown fibers. The petiole is flat, can be easily rounded at the top, at the bottom of rounded or angular. The edge of the petiole is covered with numerous small teeth. The adaxial Hastula is conspicuous, rounded and membranous, the abaxial is semicircular, often torn and also membranous.
The leaf blade is approximately circular and up over half divided evenly into narrow, rigid, short two-piece, single folded segments. The leaf blade is bare except for scattered scales along the ribs.
Inflorescences [ Edit ]
The inflorescences are among the foliage leaves (interfoliar). They are upright and approximately the same length as the blades, but is often obscured by the latter. They are three-branched four times until rare. The peduncle is slender, flattened and rather short. The cover page is tubular, zweikielig and ends in two triangular flaps. There is a bract on peduncle, which may be absent. It is closely scheidig fitting and hairy. The inflorescence axis is longer than the stem. There are several bracts that resemble the lolly, but are becoming smaller to the axis of the tip. The first-order lateral axes have a short, zweikieliges cover page, the subsequent bracts are small and membranous. The flower-bearing axes (Rachillae) are spreading, densely hairy and wear in a spiral arrangement of small bracts, which carry single or paired flowers.
Flowers [ Edit ]
The flowers are white, fragrant and 4-5 mm in size.  They are hermaphroditic and have a tubed calyx of three triangular lobes. The crown is also tubular, two-thirds of its length it is but in three valvate lobes divided. The six stamens are at the mouth of the corolla tube. The anthers are elliptical, dorsifix and latrors . The three carpels are in the lower range freely in the stylus region connected and terminate in a narrow scar . The ovule is anatrop.
The pollen is ellipsoidal and usually slightly asymmetrical. The germ is opening a distal sulcus. The longest axis measures 31 to 44 microns.
Fruits and seeds [ Edit ]
The fruit is an ellipsoidal to nearly spherical drupe . It is up to two inches long.  to maturity it is dark blue to black. The non-ripened fruit leaves are basal, the apical scars radical. The exocarp is smooth, the mesocarp is fleshy and has no fibers. The endocarp is thin and light cartilaginous. The seed is basal and carries an elongated raphe . The endosperm is homogeneous, but has shallow lateral invaginations of the seed coat. The embryo is at the side near the base, in front of the raphe.
Ingredients [ Edit ]
The fruits contain as main ingredients, phytosterols and fatty oil with free fatty acids . Next were flavonoids , an acidic polysaccharide and essential ("volatile") oil detected.   
The fatty acids of the lipid fraction include medium ( caproic acid , caprylic acid , lauric acid , myristic acid ) and palmitic acid and oleic acid . They are free for the most part,  as well as ethyl esters or acylglycerols before.
Among the phytosterols dominated free β-sitosterol , next to its fatty acid esters and glycosides occur.
Dissemination and locations [ Edit ]
The saw palmetto is limited to the southeastern United States. In Florida it is widespread, on the edges of their occurrence, to the Charleston County ( South Carolina ) and Southern Mississippi is sufficient, it is rare. It comes in the understory on poorly drained pine-Flat Wood floors, on well-drained, poor Flat Wood floors and in the understory of sand pines before -Wäldern. 
The saw palmetto is often the dominant woody species in dry prairies and pine forests deforested of South Florida. Maybe it has become more common due to irregular fires, as well as by large-scale drainage systems. They often come together with the woody plants Ilex glabra , Myrica cerifera , Lyonia ferruginea and various oaks before typologies. 
Throughout the range of the saw palmetto, the dominant species in the understory of Pinus elliottii and Pinus palustris be -Wäldern. 
All plant communities, in which the saw palmetto occurs are adapted to frequent fires during the growing season and can periodic droughts and floods survive. 
Systematics [ Edit ]
The genus Serenoa is within the family Arecaceae in the subfamily Coryphoideae , Tribe Trachycarpeae asked, but here not assigned to subtribe.
In the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew , only the type is Serenoa repens recognized. 
The genus is named after the American botanist Sereno Watson named (1826-1892).
A frequently called, older synonym for the species is Sabal serrulata (Michaux) Nichols.
Terms [ Edit ]
A Glauce form of saw palmetto is used as an ornamental plant.
Sägepalmenfrüchte can be used medicinally. The pharmaceutical drug consists of the dried ripe fruits incomplete (Sabalis Serrulatae fructus), in accordance with the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia must contain at least 11.0% total fatty acids.  For the Saw Palmetto (Sabalis Serrulatae extractum) The following requirements apply: at least 80, 0% fatty acids, at least 23.0% lauric acid , at least 0.20% total sterols and at least 0.10% β-sitosterol .  preparations of Sägepalmenfrüchten are used to treat voiding symptoms in benign prostatic hyperplasia , stage I and II used. The application is based on the assessment of the Commission E , after which they improve the symptoms, but does not resolve the prostate enlargement. 
However, the scientific analysis of studies on the effect of Sägelpalmenextrakten in benign prostatic hyperplasia repeatedly showed no effect over placebo level.  
Also nutritional supplements for men are made from saw palmetto. 
For also discussed effects of saw palmetto for hair loss, prostate cancer , prostatitis and underactive bladder , there are only vague and contradictory scientific evidence. 
As men get older, they suddenly discover their preference for vegetable. Extracts from pumpkin seeds, nettle, rye pollen and the African plum tree are very popular as soon as complaints with the prostate begin. Especially popular are products with ingredients of saw palmetto.
The also called Sabalfrucht plant grows mainly in Florida and the rest of the southeastern United States. The extract obtained from the fruit is a global bestseller . Worldwide sales of preparations of saw palmetto to be 700 million dollars annually, and rising.
Men whose benign enlarged prostate causes they feel frequent urination, have pain in the abdomen and it nachträufelt after urination could, however, create their money better than the herbal remedies for prostate problems. A large study in the Journal of the American Medical Association on Wednesday shows that saw palmetto extracts little use (Bd. 306 , S. 1344 , 2011).
"There was surprisingly no measurable effects, even when we increased the dose of the herbal product," says the study involved Urologist Claus Roehrborn of the University of Texas at Dallas. "Neither we nor could any benefit there is any damage, so that these substances cause other than the placebo effect probably nothing."
A team of North American urologists had 369 men studied with prostate problems. Half of the men, on average 60 years old were, was initially one tablet daily Saw Palmetto Extract - the other half received an identical-looking placebo. After six months, the dose was increased to two tablets daily, after a year even three tablets - that's three times the amount of the standard dose.
The number of placebo pills, which was taken from the other half of the men also increased. All twelve weeks and finally after one and a half years, the men were questioned in detail about her health, the extent of the complaints and their quality of life.
The saw palmetto extract fared very badly. Although described the men, that they felt slightly less discomfort when urinating and their quality of life improved somewhat. But the relief was minimal in the comparison group without the drug received identical looking and tasting pills, just as pronounced.
But the feeling of getting a treatment leads to this phenomenon known as the placebo effect. "It makes no difference," says Gerald Andriole, urologist at the Washington School of Medicine in St. Louis. "The money you can save yourself, because these plant compounds also act no better than sugar pills."
In Germany, saw palmetto products that often contain other phytochemicals, offensive advertised with slogans such as "less must have" (Prostagutt) or "lust for life instead of blister frustration" (Granufink). The-counter agents are best sellers in every pharmacy, but even before the appearance of the current study, there was no substantiated evidence that this plant medicine works. Although men reported in some earlier studies, that they had to get out at night less often if they took saw palmetto extracts.
It was then speculated that the plant hormones, oils and fatty acids inhibit inflammation and reduce swelling in the fruit, so the benign enlargement of the prostate can be given at the age halt and the urine flows better. Evidence, however, did not allow that and more thorough the studies were, the less likely is a helpful effect was observed. The sales success of the center is based rather on the suffering of the men who hope for relief and not on proper scientific evidence.
Men whose prostate with increasing age is always larger and presses on the urethra, face a dilemma. Drug therapy that inhibits the growth of the prostate gland can cause dizziness, headache and fatigue. Although various surgical procedures promise success, but also go in some cases with complications such as bleeding or subsequent incontinence associated.
"The conventional methods that we offer, can have unpleasant Folggen, while even the highest dose saw palmetto extract has no adverse effects," says Harvard urologist Michael Berry, who led the study. "So I would not mind if a patient wants to take the herbal preparation. However I would make sure that he understood that it was not better than placebo seems to work. "
Can prevent the benign enlargement hardly. Half of all men in their 50s feel impairments, under 80-year olds are almost all affected. "You have to decide whether a patient needs an effective treatment or not," says Ulrich Weather Auer, chief of urology at the University Hospital Freiburg. "If he stays in the plant medicine, prevents often that it actually helped." With medicines, leave at least enhance and dampen the urge of urine flow - also could surgery be delayed.