MANDRAKE: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?
The Common mandrake ( Mandragora officinarum ) in the genus Mandragora , is a poisonous medicinal and ritual plant , which since the ancient times as a magic remedy applies, mainly because of their special root form that may resemble the human form. It was named after wrath of an old Germanic seeress Alruna , the term is derived from OHG. alb , alb , Mahr , Faun 'and OHG. runes , speak softly, whisper secretly ', got. runa ("secret") or North. run ("secret, Rune ") from.
Other names are: the mandrake, the Mandrake,'s Alraunl ("the Alraunerl")  , Araunl  , Oraunl, Uraundl, Arun, the Alruneken, the Alruncke, Baaras, Hangman, Heinzel-man  , Spring Wurz , root servant, Doll root, root magic, Dutch. pisdiefje , Icelandic þjófarót ("thieves root") and Arabic devil apple.
Contents [ Hide ]
1 Old Testament
3 Middle Ages
4 Modern Times
4.1 Early Modern Times
4.2 Late Modern Times
5 effective history
5.1 Today's Popular Culture
7 Notes and references
8 External links
Old Testament [ Edit ]
It is likely that the example in Genesis 30.14-16 OT and Song of Songs 7:14 OT said plant Dudai (pl. duda'im דודאים) is identical to the mandrake, which to this day on the mountain Hermon , Carmel and Gilboa finds . (See Löw 1924, III, 363-368;. Zohary 1986)
While the Vulgate the term "Mandragora" is used ( "Egressus autem tempore Ruben messis triticeae in AGRUM, reperit Mandragoras, quas matri Liae detulit" ), Luther makes the first term untranslated ("mandrakes"). The revised Luther Bible ( Gen 30.14 to 16 LUT ) speaks of "love apples": " Reuben went in the days of wheat harvest, and found mandrakes in the field, and brought them to his mother Leah . "
The other with the gift of prophecy plant related here has fertile promoting effect. (Cf.. Too Mishra, Shir Hashirim 7.14). Here that the mandrake is meant, however, was long disputed. Heinrich Heine wrote of Helgoland to Ludwig Borne :
"In the Old Testament, I have the first book of Moses completely understood. [...] I can hear them baa, sheep Jacob [...] Meanwhile, Ruben comes home and brings his mother a bouquet of mandrakes which he picked in the fields. Rachel asked the mandrakes , and Lea she gives her with the condition that Jacob for sleep the next night with her. What are mandrakes? The commentators have applied unsuccessfully broken over his head. Luther knows no better help than that he also calls these flowers mandrakes. It may Swabian Gelbveiglein. [...]  "
Even in 1879 is found in many Bible-register to mandrakes, "the meaning of the word after: something lovely, pleasant. Whether it was a flower or fruit, is still uncertain. " The etymology of the word duda'im remains unclear.
. (Hebrew מרדום can "of the state fro ..." (cf.. Isa 24.4 EU ; Job 5.11 EU ; Koh 10.6 EU ) or "moral" (cf.. Psalm 73.8 EU : "... Superior ") and qajah (קיא), "vomit" or qijah : "vomit" (also Gajach break forth gushing "," "of," akka gahhu mean "cough"), as ghiah herb can be called (see HWbDA 1. , 313). All these interpretations are rather unlikely. too, the composite of Greek. μάνδρα, "stable" and άγείρω "collect" to explain is probably subsequently popular etymological interpretation.)
Another interpretation is that the name of Mandragora Persian mardom , "magic effect" derives.
In the NRSV the Hebrew מרדום is translated as "Mandrake". ( Gen 30.14 to 16 EU )
Ancient [ Edit ]
Egypt [ Edit ]
The Mandragora was in ancient Egypt not native, but was grown there very early as a garden plant. In the grave of Pharaoh Tutankhamun (ca. 1332-1323 v. Chr., 18th dynasty) were found fruits and harvest representations, in the grave of the architect Sennedjem (TT1 grave in Thebes-West) from the reign of Pharaoh Seti I. (1290 to 1279 v. Chr., 19th dynasty) she was together with Doumpalme , mulberry fig , date palm , poppy and cornflower shown.
In a demotic papyrus n from the third century. Chr., the mandrake as part of a sleep Trunkes called. 
After Diskurides' standard work 'materia medica' (first century.) The appearance of leaves on the effect of close ( doctrine of signatures ). Page from the Codex Dioscurides neapolitanus (700)
Greece [ Edit ]
In Greece, the fruits of Mandragora of the goddess were Aphrodite ordained that thus the nickname Mandragoritis wore. Whether here today so called mandrake root is meant must remain open. In the Aristotle -Students Theophrastus , the μανδραγóρας with the belladonna said (Hist Plant VI 2.9,.. † IX 8.8, 9.1), the mandrake plant is explicitly mentioned as an aphrodisiac that has been touted by fraudulent root graves . At harvest the mandrake should be circled three times with a sword. Excerpt ravens she was then a westward face. Meanwhile, another danced in a circle and sang about the power of love.
According to Pliny the Elder was Sappho in an unrequited love for Phaon by the magic power of the mandrake root. Otherwise Pliny was Theophrastus (see FIG. Nat. Hist. 25.148). Also Dioscorus put in the 1st century, although the word on the part Κιρκαία, "to Kirke belonging "as a love potion, but stressed the preparation and the medicinal effect:
"From the bark of the root juice is prepared by freshly crushed and placed under the press; you have to put in the sun and keep after thickening in an earthen vessels it then. Similarly, the juice from apples is also prepared, but it is obtained from them a weaker juice. "
"The fresh leaves are with barley as cover a good remedy for inflammation of the eyes and ulcers; they zertheilen all indurations and abscesses, glands and tumors; they bring further times without suppuration away when they are wiped out five to six days smoothly. For the same purpose, the leaves are canned in brine and preserved. "
"The root, finely pulverized with vinegar, heals Rose, with honey or oil it is used against snake bites, with water they distributed glands and tubercles, with grains they also relieves joint pain.  "
Middle Ages [ Edit ]
Alraunenernte using a dog ( Vienna Tacuinum Sanitatis (1390))
The medieval descriptions are usually based on texts by Flavius Josephus or Aelian - so is the "method" to be able to pull this root of a dog, often described. Moreover, it is noted that the plant about the Falkenberg in Neukirch and in the Muskauer Heide ( Lausitz thrive particularly well). (HWbDA 1, 318f .; Kühnau 1926, II, 45). It is unclear whether this is related to the assumption mandrakes were growing, especially among the gallows and gallows trees. According to superstition those arising Hangman from urine and semen hanged.
For a successful harvest was like the seed of the fern the midnight hour for Midsummer Eve suggested. (Cf.. Purpose also Orchid , St John's wort and locust hands). Even then, the mandrake pushed even a cry of terror except the gardener did nothing according to some traditions, according to some others but immediately brought about his death. Especially in this context, then the dog Josephus was like revived: The ears with cotton, pitch or wax clogged, only three crosses were so beat about the mandrake, then the dog, at the tail root was fixed, this leave to withdraw. So even rhymes Thurneysser :
"[...] The Dig alrauna undrem Gricht
Loufft wake ers hear the cry not [...]  "
Only Albert (de veget VII. 2, cap.12,379) and Konrad von Megenburg ( Nature , 406) limited situation will tend to the description of root appearance.
Hildegard of Bingen , the mandrake of an entire chapter in the Causae et Curae dedicated, imagined in the 12th century, then the devil in the plant live. The harvesting of the plant was no longer a problem, but the mandrake should then in mercurial born are placed (spring water), to expel evil - unless the plant should be explicitly used to sorcery. With (good) medicinal use, the plant should work against sexual desires. To this end, a female mandrake between chest and navel of the patient was tethered, then the root (?) To split into two parts and to bind over the lumbar and last the left hand of the already fully anthropomorphic to grind easily root and with camphor mixed to eat. Against melancholy, however, was sufficient, the root to take to bed with you and say a special prayer for their heating. In both cases, book drives could replace the mandrake.
Male and female mandrakes from the Hortus sanitatis (1498)
According to other legends was to possess and use a wizard can, in any case, a covenant with the devil to take. A deceased owner of a Alrauns had to be placed in the grave bread and money. (Meyer 1884, 64). Also, the Pass the Baton of death solved this problem only partially, because the Donated could not be further away, but always returned to the original owners. (Manz 1916, 99). Also mandrakes were intended not only as root, but for example also as toad (cf.. Lütolf 1862, 192f.), As a golden egg-laying Dragon (cf.. Vernaleken 1859, 260) or as undefined nature with rolling eyes, what the symptoms of a modeled mandrakes poisoning seems (wood smoke 1856, II, 43).
Modern Times [ Edit ]
Early Modern Times [ Edit ]
Also detailed as Hildegard describes the various herbal books of the 16th century superstition. (Cf. Fuchs. Kreuterbuch , 1543, cap 201,. Bock, Kreuterbuch , 1551, 336r; Matthioli , Kreuterbuch , Prague 1563). From the 16th / 17th Century now were also numerous legends and fables about the mandrakes. They were among the most sought after herbal talismans and should be used as amulets against evil spells and help with injuries of all kinds. With fake, imported from the Orient mandrake roots, the root of the bryony , the blood Wurzes (Tormentille), the plantain or the boys herb (often reworked with the carving knife) was driven brisk trade. Bächtold-Stäubli went even assume that almost every no was true in Europe as mandrake plant sold. (HWbDA 1.316). Even non-psychedelic plants such as orchid and iris were in demand because of their similar of mandrake root.
Western mandrake were now clothed but (unlike oriental originals). In addition, it may be assumed that depending on the complexity of the carving which produced this mandrake, further processing was increasingly unlikely. It also remains unclear whether already ecclesiastical influence, argued at the growing clothing of the characters and how this trend (if any), take off the love potion character, with the increasing gendering of the roots can correspond bring - which also meant that one male of female mandrakes hardly differed. The mandrakes Chandler counted thus entitled to the jugglers . Whether this is still more the magic aspect or even that of the false statement was mandrake must also remain open. (Cf.. HWbDA 1.319). In witch trials, the first aspect was again brought to the fore and designed against the corresponding herbalist in every case. Even in a witch trial in Rottenburg ( Württemberg ) of 1650, the Bächtold-Stäubli mentioned (HWbDA 1, 318 after Birlinger 1874, I, 162), admitted the accused that he had at night in a forest in a harness masturbates and bury this that it led to good luck charm (which should provide in particular for wealth).
After various areas and legends formations (cf. Strackerjan. HWbDA in 1, 320) the money could be brought even from the mandrake by the chimney and then sometimes to leave the house in the same way again. Or the mandrake, to which you put a piece of money, this doubled (ibid.). Similarly, the aphrodisiac function has been enhanced. About the obstetrics for pregnant women (cf. Leithäuser. Bergische plant names , 1912, 6; after HWbDA, supra) the mandrake found then in the course of diffuse general remedies input. (Cf.. Grimm also, say , 75).
Late Modern Times [ Edit ]
Yet 1820 was on the Leine River at Göttingen allegedly brought a "Alruneken" with the help of a black dog from the earth. In this case, the dog survived, but this no wonder aroused (HWbDA 1, 319). As excellent harvesting areas were now also places among dreigipfeligen hazel , or those of a mistletoe infested. (Ibid.).
Even in 1890 they offered in East Prussia called happiness roots , which the yellow iris came from (Iris pseudacorus) and wealth and blessed with children promised (HWbDA 1, 318). But besides these two aspects, which have dark a clue might lie of the propagation to reason, increasingly diffuse how any luck was bound to mandrakes. Beginning of the 20th century sold for a information of Bächtold-Stäubli (HWbDA 1, 318), the Berlin department store Wertheim called Glücksalraune for 2.25 marks. Here it was pieces of Allermannsharnisch and Gladiolus , in a medallion were brought to almost bring any positive change for each of the superstition itself means has thought: Both health, and happiness, and wealth, and finally the love of adored person should give this medallion - as evinced an attached piece of paper.
The Boland sisters still knew the mandrake, do not using the Bryonia may be confused, as a talisman with aphrodisiac. They warned of the narcotic effect of a drug overdose.
Historical impact [ Edit ]
Hans Sachs had known fake mandrakes ( plants and 9, hg v A. Keller, 16..) Niccolò Machiavelli wrote with Mandragola 1518 a nasty corruption satire. Grimmelshausengasse knew the "Hangman." Shakespeare knew the mandrake , when Julia can say:
"Alack, alack, is it not like that I, So early waking, what with loathsome smells, And shrieks like mandrakes' torn out of the earth, That living mortals, hearing them, run mad--  "
Also found in Henry IV the root:
"Thou whoreson mandrake.  "
and in Antony and Cleopatra , when Cleopatra speaks to her servant Charmian:
Give me to drink mandragora!
fact that I sleep through the gap of time,
Where is my Anthony continued !.  "
Recently also knows Iago in Othello , the Mandragora, when he says:
"[...] The Moor's been fighting with my poison: -
Dangerous thoughts are the same poisons,
the first one hardly notices the taste,
alone, after a brief effect on the blood
glow DC sulfur mines. I said it well! -
Here he comes. Opium is not, nor Mandragora,
yet all slumber forces of nature
help you depending on the sweet sleep,
the more you had yesterday.  "
In Ludwig Tieck's tale The Rune Berg (1804) pulling a mandrake root marks the transition to madness. The Brothers Grimm traditional fairy tale The giant and the tailor , by states:
"The guy can do more than bake apples, and has a wizard in the body. Be on guard, old Hans, this is not a servant for you. "
In the small bagpipe (from Irish Fairy tales , by Wilhelm Grimm translated) calls the narrator a prank driving kid going later to the elves, a wizard. And Goethe is found Mephisto astonishment over superstition:
"There they stand around and marvel
not trust the high Fund,
The babbling of a Mandrake,
The other of the black dog.  "
Then wrote Ludwig Achim von Arnim ( Isabella ) and Fouqué 1827 ( Mandragora. A short story ) about the mandrake. By Fouqué The Hangman established itself as the name next to the word mandrake. And the already above mentioned Heine seals
"The smartest forest spirits are the Mandrake,
long-bearded little man with short legs,
a long finger-old dynasty of,
yet they come, you do not know right. "
"Where are the Little Mandrake? I think they keep
oneself meticulously hidden in rock crevices.
Your little friends, I'm coming back,
But without cornice and no luck. "
Andrew Lang then described the Mandrake scream as early as 1893:
"He who desires to possess a mandrake must stop his ears with wax so he did not hear the june deadly yells Which the plant utters as it is being dragged from the earth. Then before sunrise on a Friday, the amateur goes out with a dog> all black, 'makes three crosses' round the mandrake, Loosens the soil around the root, ties the root to the dog's tail and offers the beast a bit of bread. The dog runs at the bread, drags out the mandrake root and if dead, killed by the horrible yell of the plant.  "
Klabund used in Borgia the mandrake, superstition and falsehood of Christianity in a prominent place to make visible:
"The Pope had already taken refuge in Mandragora, the love potion, to a personal physician had recovered from his of a black dog at full moon from the earth drawn mandrake root. But the potion had not worked so far. [...] In a full moon night without mandrake root and black dog, Julia, the boy, Alexander, the Old revealed. [...] Alexander Borgia was Giulia Farnese accompanied bear as a living saint in solemn procession in the reliquary. "
In James Joyce , the root extract was then in 1925:
"THERE's a coughmixture scopolamine
And its equal Has never been seen
'T would make staid Tutankamen
Laugh and leap like a salmon
And hid mummy Skotch hop on the green. "
what Hans Wollschläger translated with
"S IS 'nen cough syrup scopolamine ,
since there is really behind Musieke:
Even King Tut's amen
Were rapidly together
Göß him behind the napkin to him.  "
Bächtold-Stäubli also called the novel Alraune. The story of a living being (1911) by Hanns Heinz Ewers (HDA 1, 321). After the silent film Alraune, the executioner's daughter, called the red Hanne , the Eugen Illes 1918 turned, processed 1928 Henrik Galeen in the film Alraune by Brigitte Helm already the result of artificial insemination of a prostitute with the semen of an executed criminal on the gallows. 1930 filmed Richard Oswald the book again, also with Brigitte Helm. In a production directed by Arthur Maria Rabenalt played in 1952 in Alraune then Hildegard Knef said daughter. This is followed also seems a mandrake -called musical based on the novel by Dietmar Ludwig to tie.
Today's Pop Culture [ Edit ]
The mandrake appears in the same eight-part erotic comic series by Rochus Hahn . The name also used the US-Comic Mandrake the Magician (after the English word for mandrake). Also, Joanne K. Rowling used this motif ( see mandrake ), but writes the root rückverwandelnde effect to.  The Ritual Project Atzmann Zoubar published in 2011, the concept album Aut Cum In Terram Effundit , which deals exclusively with the mandrake. [15 ] Similarly, the mandrake comes in the movie Pan's Labyrinth in 2006 and in the horror film Alraune - The root of horror before 2010. Furthermore, the German metal band Edguy named her published in 2001 album "Mandrake" after the English word for mandrake.