GARLIC: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?
The Garlic , Garlic common or cultivated garlic ( Allium sativum) is a perennial garden plant monocot whose bulbs, smell and strong taste, are often used as a spice in cooking. A head of garlic is composed of several cloves or garlic .
Scientific name: Allium sativum , of the family Amaryllidaceae (this family was previously considered a subfamily of the Liliaceae ).
Common Names: common garlic, garlic cooking, garlic grown, capon, partridge, theriac poor peasants treacle ...
Summary [ hide ]
2.1 Subspecies and varieties
4.1 Pests and diseases of garlic
5.1 Protected Geographical Indication
6.1 Culinary use
6.1.1 The aillet
7 Nutritional and Medicinal
7.1 Principal components
8.1 The "capitals of garlic"
8.2 Famous fairs garlic
9 Etymology and language
15 Notes and references
16 See also
16.1 Related articles
16.2 External Links
History [ edit | edit the code ]
Origin [ change | change the code ]
The primary diversification center is located in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Xinjiang) with a secondary branch in the Mediterranean and the Caucasus and one in Afghanistan and northern India. These wild strains have a rather diverse morphology that can be described in three groups: the "early Asian" present in the center of the area, the group IId east and probably original to large flower heads and bulbs group purple represented by three to one few bulblets (4-6) and large enough, another more numerous (8-12) and smaller bulblets and a third very small bulbil (size of a pea) and even more numerous.
This third group of flowering stems either male-sterile or male-fertile. Some clones produce seeds normally. They are morphologically very similar but actually quite genetically diverse and are grouped under the name of botanical variety var. longicuspis .
Diffusion [ change | change the code ]
It has been used for 5,000 years . One found garlic clay dating from 3750 years BC It was widely cultivated in Egypt . Besides Herodotus reports that the first labor dispute in the history of humanity was caused by the diet of garlic suppressed Egyptian workers building the pyramid of Cheops 1 .
The Ebers Papyrus mentions garlic in forty indications. The Greeks and Romans lent him a strengthening power and gave food to their soldiers in the field. Greek athletes ate large quantities for its restorative powers (properties vasodilation, bronchodilation garlic are of obvious interest to actually improve athletic performance). In the Odyssey , Hermes gives to Odysseus who uses it as an antidote to be changed into swine by Circe . In his Plutus Aristophanes says, to make the audience laugh, that garlic could be used by some masochistic as follows:
"We do us more tea with pebbles: / by refinement we no longer use that garlic bulbs! "
- Translation P. Thiercy, The Pleiades, 1997, c. 817
After fleeing Egypt, part of the Hebrews regret feeding time of slavery. Among the products cited garlic appears:
"[...] And even the children of Israel also wept again and said, Who shall give us flesh to eat? We remember the fish we ate in Egypt, and that cost us nothing, the cucumbers, melons, leeks, onions and garlic. "
- Numbers 11.4-5
Everyone knows the smell of garlic, except one who has eaten and has no idea why everyone turns to her. Approach Athenaeum said that those who ate garlic did not enter into the temples dedicated to Cybele . Virgil speaks of it as a useful plant to the reapers to increase their forces in hot weather, and the poet Macer , to prevent them from falling asleep in fear of snakes. The Egyptians worshiped the Greeks , however, hated the Romans ate with pleasure. Horace who, on the day of his arrival in Rome , had taken a surfeit of sheep's head garlic, the 'abhorred.
Alfonso , king of Castile , had in such great aversion, that in 1330 he established an order whose statutes were those of knights who have eaten garlic or the onion might appear at court or communicate Knights with other at least for one month.
"The Provencal cuisine is based on garlic. The air in Provence , is impregnated with a scent of garlic that makes it very healthy to breathe: it enters the main condiment in the bouillabaisse and the main sauces. It actually crashed with oil, a kind of mayonnaise that is eaten with fish and snails. Luncheon of the Provence of the lower classes , often consists of a crust of bread, drizzled with oil and rubbed with garlic. "
- Alexandre Dumas , Grand Dictionnaire kitchen , 1 st edition, ed. Alphonse Lemerre , Paris , 1873; foreword by Daniel Zimmermann , eds. Phoebus , Paris , 2000 ( ISBN 978-2-85-940684-4 ) , notice 'garlic', p. 91-92 .
"The ancients held in high esteem garlic, Hippocrates ranked among the drugs perspirant , ensuring that garlic was "hot, laxative and diuretic . " With the Crusaders , who contributed to the spread in Europe , garlic soon to figure panacea , even against the plague and demonic possessions .
One of the sauces medieval most used was the "sauce of garlic," in which were combined with crushed garlic parsley and the sorrel , with fish, or vinegar and bread for grilling. "
- Larousse Gastronomique , ed. Larousse , Paris , 1996 ( ISBN 2-03-507300-6 ) , notice 'garlic', p. 28 .
It seems that it is Columbus who introduced garlic to the Americas, importing garlic cloves in Santo Domingo, where the plant would have been broadcast on the American continents 2 .
It is now grown around the world in almost all climates except polar.
Description [ change | change the code ]
Plant herbaceous, perennial and bulbous big enough to many leaves sheathing the bottom of the stem. It measures 5 to 12 cm in height.
The inflorescence is rare in many cultivars and only appears occasionally in times of stress. It is wrapped with a husk integrally falling quite rapidly. The flowers are grouped in umbels . Relatively few, they are white or pink and bloom in summer.
The fruit is a capsule with three boxes , but it is very rarely produced and the floral stalk usually gives rise to floral bulbils except for cultivars from Central Asia and the Caucasus that are close to the wild type.
Vegetative propagation is the rule rather through bulbs formed at the base of the stem. These are composed of 3 to bulbs 20 bulblets (pods) arcuate called bulbs. Each is surrounded by a leathery tunic and the group of the same foot is itself included in the same multi-layered tunic.
Subspecies and varieties [ change | change the code ]
The traditional classification distinguishes cultivars according to morpho-physiological criteria according to their growing season and the color of the tunic of the bulb and bulblets.
Garlic is planted in autumn from September to November, it is the white or purple garlic is often earlier but less tolerant to cold. It happens very rarely flower heads. The harvest lasts for two months from mid-April to mid-June for harvesting fresh and from mid-May to mid-July for harvesting dry. He held until December-January.
Garlic Spring planted between December and January, one month more or less depending on variety and climate and even into March. Also produces very rarely flower stalks. It's pink garlic that almost always harvested dry in July. He held until March-April of the following year.
Garlic is said to sticks as alternative can be planted from November to February. It currently produces flower stalks. They are usually harvested pink garlic dry from mid-June to mid-July.
Each group has its own cultivars , mainly cultivated in the regions' of southern Europe .
Head Lautrec pink garlic fresh
In the case of France , depending on the soil where they are grown and their specific color, these varieties are sometimes labeled:
Lomagne white garlic ( Midi-Pyrénées ), IGP
Garlic Cancale ( Brittany ).
Garlic of Drôme , IGP
Smoked garlic Arleux ( Nord-Pas-de-Calais , asks IGP waiting 3 );
Pink garlic of Lautrec ( Midi-Pyrénées ), PGI and Red Label
Pink garlic Var (synonyms: Rose Brignoles or Moulinen)
Purple garlic Cadours ( Midi-Pyrénées )
Based on isozymes, a recent scientific classification defines several groups and subgroups varietal.
Botanical variety Allium sativum var. sativum . The first two groups have the same enzymatic profile.
Group I: Mediterranean, flower spike, 2 sheets fertile. Average dormancy. Mainly present in Spain but is also found in France, Italy, Croatia, Algeria. Also a variety present in Senegal and Niger and known in Indonesia clone. Called No. IV, Colorados, Creole by some authors. Known in France with Rose type Lautrec and clones: 'Goulurose', 'Ibérose', 'Jardirose', 'Morasol', 'Morasur', 'Sultop' all pink tunic.
Group II: Mediterranean to temperate climates or cold winters, no flower stalks, leaves more than 3 fertile. Average dormancy. 10-12 bulbils or pearly pink tunic. Profile enzyme IIb. Mainly in northern Italy; present in many temperate countries and also in West Africa. Called Group III blancos, Silverskin by some authors. Present in France with Rose du Var, Garlic North Rose d'Auvergne and clones: 'Arno', 'Printanor', 'Cristo', 'Gayant' tunic with pearl and 'Flavor', 'Fructidor', 'Jardinor ',' Moulinor ' pink tunic.
Group III: Mediterranean, no flower stalks, leaves more than 3 fertile. Large bulbils. Dormancy fairly low. 8-12 bulbils white tunic. IIc enzyme profile. Present in southern Spain, Romania, France, California also in some areas in subtropical Africa. Called blancos, artichoke by some authors. Known in France with the whites of the Drôme and Limagne and purple Cadours and clones: 'Coral', 'Dario', 'Jolimont', 'Messidor', 'Thermidrôme' white tunic and 'Germidour' tunic to violet.
Tropical subgroup: earlier with varieties of southern China and Taiwan.
Group V: South Mediterranean or tropical lowland flower spike sometimes present, 3 leaves fertile. Dormancy very low. Many bulbils (20-40) white or pink tunic included in a white or purple tunic. Enzymatic profile IIa. Present in warm areas (South and East Mediterranean to Yemen, Guinea, West Indies, Reunion, South India, South. Named No. II, subtropical by some authors. Represented France in America by the variety 'Ramses'.
Subgroup "asian early" flower spike sometimes present, 2 leaves fertile need cold more pronounced. Dormancy very low. Bulbils larger than the group IV. Turban called by some authors. Known in France with the clones 'Illico', 'Primor', 'Sprint' all in purple tunic and flower spike.
Botanical variety var. ophioscorodon
Group IV: continental climate, flower stalks, leaves two fertile. Bulbils larger than group I. Enzymatic Profile III. Present mainly in Eastern Europe. Called rocambole, Colorados, ruso, No. III by some authors. Includes two different kinds Rocambole and Continental .
Botanical variety var. pekinense
Group of North China and Japan: flower stalks, leaves two fertile. They can be white or pink recalling in this case some cultivars of Group I but not store as well. Enzymatic profile IVb.
Botanical variety var. longicuspis (see "Origin")
Wild-type group: strong flowering stems, bulbs purple, 2 leaves fertile. Some authors call for the type porcelain producing big few bulblets or purple striped for the type producing many small bulblets. Enzymatic profile varied: Ia, Ib, Ic, Id, IVa, IVb, IVc, IVd, fourth.
Subtropical variety group
Group VI: tropical mountain flower spike, more than 3 leaves fertile early, need high enough cold. Bulbils larger than the group V and fewer (5-10) bulbar purple tunic. Low dormancy. Enzymatic profile Vb, Va. Met in Mexico, Peru, Egypt, Reunion, Madagascar, Thailand, Vietnam. Named tropical No. I by some authors.
Genetics [ change | change the code ]
Despite its great food and therapeutic interest, garlic has been the subject of little research for improvement apart from the often negative mass and empirical selection of currently existing cultivars. The Quarantine cultivars grown from seeds collected in Central Asia is just beginning (Japan, USA, Europe, Israel) to find disease-resistant varieties and can be reproduced by seed. Fertile Mexican varieties has been discovered that could lead to an improvement for the tropics.
The intra-and interspecific hybridization sexual or somatic, as it is often sterile, is currently highly confidential or non-existent. The only hybridization assays were conducted with the summer leek ( Allium ampeloprasum ) and onion ( Allium cepa ) and have been made solely for the purpose of study of the genetic material. There are no marketed hybrid.
Its chromosome count is 2n = 2x = 16. There are no known polyploid.
Culture [ change | change the code ]
The plant prefers light soils, deep, rich old nutrients and well drained. The seeds are buried at 3 5 cm deep, spaced plants 10- 15cm and 25-lines spaced 30 cm . The bulbs of garlic rot in heavy soils and loamy , especially if they remain wet. Do not grow in organic soil or use manure fresh, it makes them rot. Garlic prefers mineral granular fertilizer . Do not dust off the garlic bulbs, the bulb's surface should be in the air. Use the outer parts for planting and the Center for consumption.
In France , it can be planted from May In warmer regions, planting can be done until fall if it is done in soil that will drain well in winter. The fall planting gives better crops.
In Canada , planting is usually done in October under a mulch that is removed in the spring. Some prefer to plant in spring when the ground is thawed. Harvesting takes place in late July, early August.
Harvest at the end of the summer, "build" the foliage (the lie on the floor) to ripen the bulbs and increase the harvest.
Pods groceries are often treated with anti-germ and therefore can not be replanted.
Pests and diseases of garlic [ change | change the code ]
Fly truffles and Amaryllidaceae , Suillia lurida Meigen (= S. univittata (von Roser)) ( Diptera Heleomyzidae ) is harmful to the garlic and the onion .
The rust , causing yield losses, appears frequently because of too much moisture.
The mosaic virus garlic causes streaks and blotches on the yellow leaves. Depending on the variety, the symptoms may be mild (mosaic diffuse) or very serious (deformed and stunted plants).
The white rot of garlic is caused by a soil fungus ( Sclerotium cepivorum ), which is also transmitted through the bulbs.
The list of plant protection products authorized in France to fight against pests garlic is as follows:
Based E-phy of the Ministry of Agriculture
Production [ change | change the code ]
Production in tonnes. Figures 2003-2004
data from FAOSTAT ( FAO )
Flag of the People's Republic of China China 1 million 22% 1057800 24%
Flag of India India 500,000 11% 500,000 11%
Flag of South Korea South Korea 378,846 9% 378,846 9%
Flag of the United States USA 283,090 6% 283,090 6%
Russia Flag Russia 218,830 5% 220,000 5%
Flag of Egypt Egypt 216,000 5% 216,000 5%
Flag of Spain Spain 188,900 4% 157,600 3%
Other countries 1659434 38% 1612011 37%
Grand total 4445100 100% 4425347 100%
Protected Geographical Indication [ change | change the code ]
Many cultures have been awarded the IGP for garlic 4 : pink garlic of Lautrec , grown in the Tarn department , in 1996 ( Red Label since 1966), white garlic Lomagne (2008) Garlic smoked Arleux (2010) 5 , garlic Drome.
Use [ change | change the code ]
Two heads and a clove of garlic
and a further cut into pieces
Culinary use [ change | change the code ]
Peeled garlic which the germ has been removed
the aioli ;
the snail butter ;
the Aigo boulido ;
the rust (kitchen) ;
the cheese fondue ;
the cu agghia the pasta (pasta with garlic, Sicilian recipe);
the knoblauchsuppe (Austrian garlic soup);
the knoblauchbagette (bread rubbed with garlic and then baked in the oven, Austrian recipe);
the tourin , garlic soup, specialty cuisine of Gascony ;
When cooking garlic, some advise to remove the germ, which is less digestible than the rest of the pod (due to a greater concentration of organo-sulfur products 6 ).
The aillet [ change | change the code ]
The aillet is a startup immature garlic about 3 months and 20 cm high, which has not yet formed pods and is therefore the spring. Cut into thin slices, it is used to flavor salads, green or composed and omelettes. Its flavor is quite pronounced and resembles that of garlic. It can also be used in baking, in flat spring with new vegetables. It freezes well.
Nutritional and medicinal value [ change | change the code ]
The medicinal use is important: extracts of garlic are ingested for medical reasons by a little over 4% of the American population 7 and 10% of the Australian population 8 .
Garlic contains vitamins A, B1, B2 and C, various natural antibiotics whose ajoène 9 (the latter unstable, would be solved too low doses in the body after ingestion of garlic to be genuinely effective 10 ) as well as anti-cholesterol agents (this latter property was not confirmed 11 ).
It contains the inulin , a prebiotic (stimulates the development of beneficial bacteria in the intestinal flora ).
It has anticoagulants 12 , may potentiate the risk of bleeding when combined with drugs antiplatelet 13 .
The extracts of garlic are commonly used in the treatment of colds . In a randomized, double-blind, people who took garlic every day for three months were 2.7 times less likely to have a cold, and when they were sick, colds lasted one day Less. The authors conclude, however, indicating that lack of studies on the effects of garlic on a cold 14 .
It could have moderate efficacy in reducing the risk of hypertension 15 , 16 .
Based on 5 studies 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , an international statistical summary evaluates as "evidence" that regular consumption of garlic ( 3 g ) per day would halve the risk of cancer stomach, colon and rectum 22 . The enzyme alliinase , which would produce these effects, needs to wait 15 minutes after crushing raw garlic before consumption 23 , 24 . Cancers of the head, neck, lung, breast and prostate were also reduced 25 .
An article from 1988 of JAMA indicates effects hypolipidemic , anticoagulant (both having an effect against the atheroma ), antihypertensive , chelating (against some toxins and heavy metals), antioxidant , immune booster and anti cancer 26 .
Main constituents [ change | change the code ]
Essential oil (diallyl disulfide, allicin ( antibiotic ), alliin , alliinase , inulin )
Vitamins A, B, C and E
The plant yields averaged 0.25% distilled essential oil (approximately 7.5 mg garlic about 3 grams, far away from the threshold of lethal toxicity of allyl sulfides, which would require the ingestion of nearly 200 cloves of garlic per pound, or more than 14,000 cloves of garlic for an adult weighing 70 pounds, which is not feasible). However in the concentrated form of the essential oil distilled, the product can easily become toxic and highly allergenic, ingestion of a very active neighbor quantity of gram (almost all essential oils, often in this form, are toxic and should be handled carefully and sparingly, avoiding contact with the skin and mucous membranes, direct ingestion and vapor in the eyes). Allergies can however grow with over the years through contacts unprotected and frequent repeated with fresh garlic.
Cooking garlic removes most of its toxicity allergen (but do not make it more digestible for those who have trouble metabolizing its organo-sulfur compounds too concentrated). However, the initial preparation by crushing a clove of fresh garlic (more easily achieved by removing the central seed a little wood, which does not substantially reduce the amount of organosulfur still in the pod) and leaving puree garlic oxidize in air for 15 minutes before eating (the time to be released the most active volatiles and is done processing alliines released) is usually sufficient to remove its potentially allergenic or intolerance digestive; the relatively low toxicity of the natural product is also reduced to nil in an acidic pH below 3 (eg in the stomach) and poses no special risks (this is not the case of the essential oil by direct contact Skin and mucous membranes, on which it can cause inflammation, dangerous on respiratory mucosa: the essential oil should not be inhaled directly or only at very low doses and slow diffusion).
Composition [ change | change the code ]
Miscellaneous: prostaglandin, phenol acid, phytostéroïdes, polyphenols, flavonoids ...
Vitamins (mg per 100 g ): B1 (0,2), B2 (0.08), B3 (0.65), B5 (0.6), B6 (1,2), C (30) E ( 0.1) A ...
Minerals (mg per 100 g ): Potassium (446), Sulphur (200), Phosphorus (144) Calcium (38), Magnesium (21), Sodium (10), Chlorine (30) ...
Trace elements: iron (1.4) Zinc (1), manganese (0.46), boron (0.4), Copper (0.15), Nickel (0.01), Molybdenum (0.07) Iodine (0.003), Selenium (7-20 ppm) 27 ...
Composition of the essential oil:
Made up percentage
diallyl disulfide 54.25
diallyl trisulfide 1.34
diallyl tetrasulfide 6
diallyl sulfide 5.7
methyl allyl trisulfide 1.34
allyl propyl disulfide 0.13
allyl methyl disulfide 1.94
Tradition [ change | change the code ]
The "capitals of garlic" [ change | change the code ]
Brotherhood of Garlic Piolenc ( Vaucluse )
In France, many towns and villages willingly give the title of "capital of garlic"
Arleux , northern, capital of smoked garlic .
Village Piolenc is the capital of Provencal garlic (garlic festival every year on the last weekend of August) .
in the Gers , Saint-Clar is the capital of white garlic , as also claimed in the same geographic area, Beaumont-de-Lomagne ( Tarn-et-Garonne ).
in Haute-Garonne , Cadours , the capital of purple garlic .
in the Tarn , Lautrec , capital of pink garlic .
In the Puy-de-Dôme , Billom is the capital of Auvergne garlic .
At Reunion is Little Island which is the capital of garlic .
The United States , the capital of garlic is Gilroy ( California ).
Famous fairs garlic [ change | change the code ]
Garlic Fair - Toulouse
( Eugene Trutat , 1899).
In Auvergne, Fair's garlic Billom every mid-August
In northern France, Arleux every first Sunday of September
South to Uzes All June 24, fair garlic on the occasion of the Saint-Jean
In the west, in Cancale in late July
In the Tarn, Lautrec, every first Friday of August
Tarn et Garonne: Beaumont Lomagne
A Tours (Indre-et-Loire) on the day of St. Anne (July) around the halls
In Charente and Charente Maritime on the morning of 1 st May, the custom persists in the villages to gather together to eat the aillet stranded with bread, sausage, cricket and a glass of wine.
At Easter, the lamb roast goat is also prepared with aillet.
Etymology and linguistic [ change | change the code ]
"[Garlic] (...) ( xiii th century ), first al ( xii th century ), (...), comes from the Latin allium (...). The classic form in Latin is Allium , probably native word ( italic ) (...).
He had jobs in figurative phrase, ... not a garlic ( xii th century ) meaning "little things", with various colorful versions (do not argue the tail of an old garlic, a peeled garlic, rotten ...) see the plums, loquats . Phrases refer to other plants: grass for garlic (1564), Tree garlic (1877), garlic Snake (1549), etc.
Plural, garlic , first alz (1165-1170), competes with garlic , used in botany . "
- Ed. 's Alain Rey , Le Robert Historical dictionary of the French language , dictionaries Le Robert , Paris , New Edition January 1994, Volume I, p. 37 .
Garlic has two plurals . The oldest, "garlic", tends to disappear. Botany form used more frequently "garlics", but both forms are correct.
Symbolism [ change | change the code ]
Pliny noted that garlic away the snakes and madness.
In Siberia , according to the beliefs of the Buryats , the approach of the souls of women who died in childbirth, and returning at night persecuting the living, can be recognized by the smell of garlic they spread.
The Batak of Borneo agree garlic power to find the lost.
This is because garlic protect against the evil eye found in Sicily , in Italy and in Greece and India , bouquets of garlic heads tied with red wool. In Greece merely utter the word "garlic" (Greek word: skordo) conjure evil spells.
The shepherds of the Carpathians , before milking for the first time their sheep , are rubbing their hands with blessed garlic to protect the flock against the bites of serpents .
In all practices, garlic turns a protective agent against harmful influences or dangerous aggression.
In Rome , the entrance to the temple of Cybele was forbidden to those who came to eat garlic. As he entered the Roman soldiers ordinary food, garlic has become the symbol of military life.
In the Middle Ages, children wore garlic braids neck to protect against witches. The legend of garlic "anti-vampire" there would origins [ref. needed] unless it comes from the habit - still in effect - to give garlic to horses to prevent tick bites [ref. needed] .
Ancient superstitions of sailors want that garlic wards off bad luck, storms and sea monsters, which is why one should never fail to have on board ...
Finally Garlic is known to repel vampires , the zombies and probably the devil himself [ref. needed] .
Proverbs [ change | change the code ]
The mortar always smells like garlic . Means that the customs of his native environment is preserved
Who garlic in her garden did not need a doctor . Due to its medicinal properties
For it to go, you have garlic
Garlic is penicillin poor
Garlic is to scare away the wolf dogs (Agen quote)
Tribute [ change | change the code ]
The Toulouse duo the Fabulous Trobadors makes garlic a humorous apology in his song entitled the alh (garlic in Occitan), the album On the Linha Imaginòt . After several verses that evoke the many medicinal properties (real or imagined) of the plant, the eighth sweeps objections concerning the smell:
Garlic is true burden breath
And I do not want to unload,
But not confuse hygiene
Matter of taste and prejudice ...
Do not feel embarrassed
Dusting of the aboriginal garlic
Even when they are flirting!
I would rather plebeian
These worldly alienated
Smelly perfume full nose.
Trivia [ edit | edit the code ]
At one time, the conscripts used it to be reformed. Its pungent bulb contains a sap that attracts and volatile tears. Applied to the skin, he blushed and even excoriated.
Calendar [ change | change the code ]
In the Republican Calendar French, the 27 th day of Messidor is called day of Garlic 28 .