GARLIC: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?
Garlic ( Allium sativum ) is a plant species of the genus Allium ( Allium ). It is used as spice - and a medicinal plant used.
The German name "garlic" is derived from the Old High German word " klioban "(=" split ") from; in the Middle Ages was called the garlic for this word chlobilou or chlofalauh , based on the "split" appearance of his toes (see today the term "claws" in animals). Other colloquial names are garlic , chnobli (Switzerland), Knofi , Knowwlich or Knofl .
Garlic has been in Germany for medicinal plant of elected 1989.
Contents [ Hide ]
3.1 Growing the world
3.2 neighbors in the mixed culture
4.1.1 garlic sprouts
4.1.2 Chinese Garlic
4.2 Chemical constituents and medicinal use
6 trivial names
9 See also
10 Further reading
11 Web Links
12.1 Notes and references
Description [ Edit ]
The ordinary garlic is a perennial herbaceous plant , reaching heights of growth from 30 to 90 cm. The flat, bluish-green leaves are up to 15 mm wide. As Überdauerungsorgan is a bulb formed, which is surrounded by a thin, white or reddish shell and consists of a Hauptzehe are positioned around the five to 20 Besides toes. The taste of garlic is very hot and aromatic, the juice of the toes of a sticky consistency. From the mean Hauptzehe drives from a stalk round stems.
The stalk round inflorescence stem carries a scheindoldigen inflorescence with few flowers. The white or pink flowers are triple. In addition to the barren flowers develop in a cylindrical cones about ten to 20 round bulbs.
Systematics [ Edit ]
The first publication of Allium sativum was carried out in 1753 in Species Plantarum , 1, pp 296-297. synonyms for Allium sativum L. for example, Allium pekinense Prokh, Allium controversum Schrad. ex Willd., Allium longicuspis rule.
Allium sativum belongs to the section Allium in the subgenus Allium within the genus Allium . 
When garlic ( Allium sativum ), two varieties are given: 
Allium sativum L. var. sativum , the actual culture garlic
Allium sativum var. ophioscorodon (Link) Doell (Syn .: Allium ophioscorodon called Link), sometimes snake garlic or rock Bolle (Rocambole)
Schmeil-hinge plates  classifies the two varieties as subspecies (subsp.) and called Allium sativum var. ophioscorodon as "Pearl Onion", leading to confusion with the often processed into pickled pearl onions can lead, which are a leeks - variety in question. The term "serpent garlic 'can be confused with snakes and leek ( Allium scordoprasum lead).
The two varieties of Allium sativum differ in the following features:
Allium sativum var. sativum : mostly low Blütenstandsschäfte, straight or initially whippy bent; Leaves with a rough edge, elongated side onions.
Allium sativum var. ophioscorodon : higher Blütenstandsschäfte, curved serpentine at the beginning, leaves with smooth edge, roundish-ovoid bulblets.
Both varieties are numerous varieties for autumn and spring planting in cultivation. You are a good climate (wine regions) in Central Europe occasionally also found wild.
Cultivation [ Edit ]
Fresh garlic cloves
The plant has perennial onions that are exclusively vegetatively reproduce in two ways: On the one form around the daughter onion bulbs, called cloves. For other forms at a fraction of the population in the summer a stalk, the (also called bulbils) a package of significantly smaller bulbils formed.
In both propagating methods, there are always conflicting opinions as regards the duration of the culture. In principle it is possible to put garlic in the fall or in the spring in the earth, because it is permanent and so hardy. Earlier harvest is when plugging in the fall possible, and income will be higher.   A part of the growing ends reported already to get after one growing season the desired tubers, which are divided into toes, others report only then to obtain the so-called "round logs," onions, which have not yet been divided into toes and are also much smaller. It is possible that at the designated below in the "kitchen" "Chinese garlic" is the same type at a younger stage. If toes are already formed, which may be the cause for the formation of a stem in the following summer. Alternatively, there is the theory that the variety is crucial for the formation of the stem. 
Garlic should be placed at a distance of 20 cm. The harvest may take place when a third of the foliage is withered.  cultivation end often report that the onions the umbel need more than a year for development.
The caterpillars of the leek moth ( Acrolepiopsis assectella ) eat up to 25 mm thick transitions in the garlic leaves, resulting in the death of the plant. The white rot is a fungus caused. Most other pests are distributed by the smell of garlic; this can also be exploited deliberately by placing garlic as a natural means of defense alongside other crops.
Growing worldwide [ Edit ]
Production in tonnes, 2004-2007
Source: FAOSTAT ( FAO )
2004 2005 2006 2007
China People's Republic of China 10 593 366 73.8% 11 .083. 014 74.5% 11 587 000 76.4% 12 .088. 000 77.1%
India India 691 .100 4.8% 646 .600 4.3% 598 .200 3.9% 645, 000 4.1%
South Korea South Korea 357 .842 2.5% 374 .980 2.5% 331 .379 2.2% 325 000 2.1%
Russia Russia 236 .170 1.6% 257 .280 1.7% 255 .860 1.7% 254, 000 1.6%
United States USA 236 .960 1.7% 216 .410 1.5% 224 .480 1.5% 221 .810 1.4%
Egypt Egypt 187 .833 1.3% 162 .077 1.1% 163, 000 1.1% 168, 000 1.1%
Spain Spain 165 .425 1.2% 136 .400 0.9% 148 .300 1.0% 142 .400 0.9%
Other States 1 .884. 347 13.1% 1 .993. 007 13.4% 1 .860. 680 12.3% 1 .842. 100 11.7%
Total 14 .353. 025 100% 14 .869. 768 100% 15 168 899 100% 15 686 .310 100%
Neighbors in the mixed culture [ Edit ]
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Garlic is compatible with different neighbors that grow directly adjacent, differently well. One important factor here is the allelopathy .
The good neighbors include strawberries , cucumbers , raspberries , roses , carrots , fruit trees , roses , beetroot , tomatoes and tulips .
As bad neighbors apply peas , cabbage and green beans .
Use [ Edit ]
Kitchen [ Edit ]
Cloves of garlic
Garlic is known in many parts of the world as a spice and vegetables and spreads. Garlic cloves are fresh or pickled in a many countries brine or in oil available. A special place he enjoys in the kitchen the entire Mediterranean, the Middle East and much of Asia. He comes in dishes with a strong garlic flavor, such as the Italian spaghetti aglio e olio , the Spanish Gambas al ajillo , garlic bread, various sauces or dips such as aioli and tzatziki before, but also acts generally taste improving or -verstärkend and is therefore to various roasts , stews, fish or stews added. When frying, it must not be too brown, because he can taste bitter otherwise. With a garlic press allows the garlic cloves finely divide. To optimum should take advantage of the active ingredients of garlic are added crushed, but are left only briefly cooked, then disconnecting. 
In some parts of Austria Garlic is also known as " vanilla called the poor man or poor woman ". The known there "vanilla roast" is therefore not flavored with vanilla, but with garlic.
Mainly of people from areas of culture, in their traditional cuisine using little or no garlic, the physical emanations from people who have eaten him, bothersome; however, the odor will not attach any significance in many cultures. The strictly-smelling substances do not come here, as is often assumed, from the stomach . In fact, are sulfur-containing degradation products via the alveoli of the respiratory air delivered. The medical term for this is halitosis . These odors are only weakly or not at all perceived by oneself and by others who have eaten garlic.
Garlic sprouts [ Edit ]
Garlic sprouts from the glass
In Spain and in some courts instead of the garlic cloves garlic sprouts and garlic seeds used, for example in Tortilla Española . Green garlic sprouts have a mild, characteristic taste and look similar to fine green beans . In Spain garlic sprouts are loaded in the glass commercially available.
Chinese Garlic [ Edit ]
Chinese Garlic is a Lauchart . The leaves are not round, but broad and wrinkled and taste of garlic - but without the garlic smell. The bulb does not consist of individual toes, but looks more like an onion.
Chemical constituents and medicinal uses [ Edit ]
Chemical structure of alliin, ingredient of garlic
Aspergillus niger on malt agar with a zone of inhibition by freshly crushed garlic
The often perceived as unpleasant odor after eating garlic is due to the degradation products of sulfur-containing ingredients such as alliin , which to allicin is converted her. Garlic is an important source of selenium . He has an antibacterial effect and to the formation of thrombi prevent.
The garlic bulb contains storage carbohydrates (especially fructans ) and sulfur-containing compounds such as the odorless alliin and their precursors, Gammaglutamylalkylcysteine, an adduct with thiamin (allithiamine), adenosine and alliin lyases. These enzymes are triggered by violation of the cells (for example, when squeezing or pressing the toes) in contact with alliin , the connection is terminated and the actual active ingredients formed allicin and other secondary products only and by the red blood pigment hydrogen sulfide are converted.  Allicin is the starting material for several other sulfur-containing compounds due especially during the heating of garlic. These include diallyl disulfide , Diallylthiosulfonat and especially ajoene, which has the property that the aggregation of platelets to prevent, and thus antithrombotic effect. 
A variety of studies have shown that the ingredients the blood lipid lowering and therefore preventive against atherosclerotic could affect changes in the blood vessels.  A reduction of harmful LDL Although -Cholesterins could not be demonstrated  , however, showed meta-analyzes that garlic the cholesterol significantly reduced total. 
A study with 192 participants, which dosage form is most efficient, however, concluded that garlic, no matter how administered, no significant effect on HDL, LDL, total cholesterol and triglycerides has. 
Meta-analyzes of statistical surveys of preventive nutrition and animal tests put a preventive or palliative effect against colon cancer close. 
History [ edit ]
Garlic stand in the Basque Country
Garlic is a crop and came from the steppes of Central and South Asia across the Mediterranean to Europe; the wild type is considered extinct .
Garlic has been known since ancient times as a food and medicine. Egyptian slaves used garlic to sell as a tonic and to lice and intestinal parasites. It is known that the workers at the pyramids were given a daily ration, and it is recorded that in the reduction of the ration, the workers stopped work.
Garlic cultivation in the Middle Ages
Romans and Greeks also knew about the healing possibilities of the plant. In the Talmud will be continuous enjoyment recommended, because the garlic satiate the body, giving the spirit of clarity, strength and virility drive out parasites from the intestine. The notes in Scripture De materia medica of the ancient physician Pedanios Dioscorides in the 1st century, the (in Book II, Chapter 152) had the garlic recommended length for a variety of uses in the medication, remained for the entire Middle Ages, decisively, where about Bite wounds (such as dogs or snakes), hair loss, tooth pain, skin rashes, lung disorders or menstrual disorders were treated. In the late Middle Ages the garlic, which was quite generally as detoxifying, was also against the plague applied.
Furthermore, it was and is it in many countries and regions (eg in Asia) an effect as an aphrodisiac rumored.
Nicholas Culpeper advised according to the four humours doctrine : for his "tremendous heat" should be eaten "with extreme moderation" garlic.
In the region of today's Germany of garlic reached most likely due to the advancing Romans and was then quite soon spread through the cultivation in monasteries. Already in probably the end of the 8th century by Charlemagne adopted Capitulare de vel curtis imperii villis the garlic is called (in Chapter 70) among the crops to be cultivated.
Trivial names [ Edit ]
More in part only regional common names for the garlic are or Graubünden), Knoblecht ( St. and look ( Altmark ). 
Superstitions [ Edit ]
The garlic to ward off the demons and spirits , but especially vampires serve.
Smell [ Edit ]
The consumption of garlic usually leads to the fact that in human breath after a characteristic odor is wahrnnehmbar, which is perceived by fellow human beings, who himself does not consume garlic as unpleasant. This is due to the sulfur contained in garlic allicin . According to a study by the Ohio State University 's milk is the best remedy for this odor, it neutralizes 50 percent of the sulfur compounds in the breath.  Another good remedy for garlic breath is chlorophyll , eg. example of parsley .   Also ginger is recommended to garlic odor, especially in Asia, but the smell of garlic can generally not be completely neutralized, because odors are released partially through the skin.