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Acetyl-l-carnitine: Health Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?

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ACETYL-L-CARNITINE: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?

Acetyl L-Carnitine 400 mg and Alpha - Lipoic Acid 200 mg 120 capsules. Pharmaceutical grade, is an acetyl derivative of the amino acid L-carnitine. It unfolds in combination with alpha - lipoic acid, a synergistic effect. It is the best supplement for optimal metabolism. To maintain the mental and physical freshness! Raises the power plants of cells to a youthful level. The fatigue of the mitochondria with age is one of the main causes of aging. Acetyl - L - Carnitine plus Alpha - lipoic acid increases the activity of those power plants of cells. The acetylated form of L - carnitine is more effective than simple L - carnitine.

Improves cognitive capacity of healthy people (attention, visual coordination and reflexes -.. Improves cognitive function, emotional well-being and social behavior This effect lasts a long time, even after prolonged discontinuation of the drug -. Reduces the symptoms of depression and improves quality of life -. Reduces the symptoms of senility - a day improve lipoic well-being, the mind, the attention and the ability to speak - -. 2 g Acetyl L - Carnitine & Alpha. Reduces the formation of cellular waste product "age spots" It is suspected. .. that there is damage to the mitochondrial for the most part - are DNA that drive our aging process Two processes characterize the mitochondria -Erschöpfung that accompanies so many aging phenomena: oxidation of cell components, decrease in ATP production rate latter you can tell by a simple phenomenon: fatigue !

● improves memory
● strengthens the ability to concentrate
● reduced depression
● enhances the vitality
● helps with fatigue
● support the supply of brain cells with energy
● support the repair of damage to the nervous system and the associated impairment of signal transduction

Acetyl L-Carnitine 400 mg & alpha lipoic acid 200 mg
Pharmaceutical Grade - 120 Capsules - EUR 47.95

. prices including VAT, excluding shipping cost
deliveries are made ​​with HERMES / DHL / POST. Shipping cost EU / CH from 3.80.
Starting from EUR 70.00 order free shipping to all EU border r.

Two capsules contain:

Acetyl L-Carnitine & Alpha Lipoic Acid 800 mg 400 mg

120 capsules

Acetyl L-Carnitine Free Form HCI

800 mg

Alpha lipoic acid

400 mg

Formulated and Manufactured by Puritan's Pride®, Inc. Oakdale, NY - USA Recommended Use: As a dietary supplement 2-4 capsules separated in time lying down with a large glass of water. Not suitable for diabetics. Do not consume during pregnancy and lactation periods. Other Ingredients: Vegetarian cellulose, vegetarian magnesium stearate. Contains no sugar, sweeteners, wheat, artificial colors, artificial flavors, preservatives, starch, milk, fish, gluten, soy and yeast.

IMPORTANT NOTE:
The recommended daily dose should not be exceeded. People who regularly use drugs, and people care for illness should keep from eating with their doctor or therapist consultation. Pregnant and lactating women, children under 12 and persons who are under medical treatment should generally discourage from taking dietary supplements, except when it is recommended to them by their therapist. This product should not be used as a substitute for a varied and balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle.

Keep out of the reach of small children. Store in a cool, dry place. The dry bag container is not for consumption. Food supplements are not medicines, which are considered as such in several States of the European Union that will benefit from the free movement of goods within the Union. Our products are manufactured according to GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) standard. Quality, purity and concentration are regularly by independent testing laboratories in accordance with FDA (Food and Drug Administration) monitors guidelines. Our products should be regarded as preventive measures or to increase the general well-being. We must inform consumers as not fully aware of our nutritional supplements. The contents are reduced to important factual information. They do not endorse or promote the product and may be incomplete. For all the given information of the products is solely the responsibility of the manufacturer. If it is due to improper use of the products have side effects or health problems, we do not assume any liability.

Acetyl - L - carnitine tastes of lemon / lemon? therefore be regarded as relatively neutral! Can be immediately dissolve except for a few crumbs Cristal in water. Effect as "fatty acid - Tug", more fat - burning, therefore more energy - so I can not tell! Had a slimmer muskolöser Vieltrainierer, but again a boost of energy from acetyl - L Carnitine expected SOLO. Acetyl - L -Carnitine in combination with R - Alpha - lipoic acid but brings me a dose-dependent, definitely real power !! !! Tested Acetyl - L - Carnitine work for me for example, in the evening / night to expel the mental fatigue and / improving alertness / focus !! Target neurons regenerate and stimulate their growth / is translated against dementia etc.! For me, neuronal and together with R - Alpha - lipoic acid therefore recommended !! That is not to pass through the stomach I read here about the first time !! have pure nothing, no study etc also found !! Where does this info without background ?? !! Quality? I hope good !! Price, very good, in capsules far too expensive.

L-carnitine - delusion or reality?

In the market of dietary supplements, there are many vendors who try promise in their advertising, prospects for its products in the L-carnitine Erg like SUPPLEMENT to inspire.

Many athletes and others interested in these products usually do not have the scientific background knowledge to those offered products to evaluate properly because it usually more than nutrition technical knowledge is necessary. This usually only see the advertising claims with various justifications for efficacy of the products offered, which were then mostly still occupied with alleged scientific studies.

But k ö can the products, which in various exemplary u have to buy currencies and price levels hold, what is the customer promised in the advertising statements or cause other effects? there a scientific basis or perhaps scientific studies or studies on which the made advertising statements are based? Are these products takes effect, in relation to the advertising claims made? And can such a food supplement not perhaps even negative effects are caused?

Contents

1 What is L-carnitine and how it works at all?

2 effects on the utilization of carbohydrates and proteins

2.1 Protection of cell membrane and intracellular membranes
2.2 Neurological effects in the central and peripheral nervous system
3 L-carnitine and fat burning

4 L-carnitine - When does a supplement any sense?

4.1 The antioxidant effect of L-carnitine
4.2 L-carnitine and promotes blood circulation
4.3 L-carnitine and immune system
4.4 L-carnitine and regenerative capacity
5 Summary and concluding remarks

About L-Carnitine - slimming or Hype?

(The scientific facts)

1 What is L-carnitine and how it works at all?

The active ingredient L-carnitine is, according to EU directives to a vitamin- like substance hnlichen , the earlier than vitamin Bt , or even as Vitamin T was called. In the year 1948, by Fraenkel et al. a new B vitamin on the model of the white mealworm Tenebrio Molitor discovered that essential f ü r is the burning of fat . He was given the name vitamin Bt - t of Tenebrio.

Four years later the Vitamin Bt is identified as L-carnitine (see FIG. CARTER et al. 1952). The name carnitine is derived from the Latin word " carne / carnis "for meat from, since L-carnitine mainly found in meat. Humans take u about the food between 10 and 70 mg L-carnitine per day, is mixed diet the t ä Possible recording an average of 30 mg per day. since L-carnitine has its main occurrence in meat, vegetarians usually take less L-carnitine to be.

With a reduced L-carnitine supply an improved transport could be detected (cf.. LUCI et al., 2008). As a result, vegetarians supplied by the diet L-carnitine might be handled better, because L-carnitine is not only found in meat. Other foods contain L-carnitine, as shown in the following table.

L-carnitine content of selected foods
Table 1: L-carnitine content in selected foods (see DEMARQUOY et al., 2004.)

The following will now be briefly summarized the participation of individual body parts of the carnitine biosynthesis (cf. CHEAP MAN et al, 2004, p 20..):

Skeletal muscle

The formation and release of protein-bound trimethyllysine as a starting point for the synthesis of gamma-butyrobetaine , the synthesis of gamma-butyrobetaine in the muscle cells and the release of gamma-butyrobetaine in the blood in exchange with L-carnitine are functions of the skeletal muscles.

Blood

The transport of gamma-butyrobetaine in liver, kidney and brain in addition to the transport of L-carnitine application of the blood.

Kidney, liver, brain

The absorption of gamma-butyrobetaine from the blood, the hydroxylation of gamma-butyrobetaine into L-carnitine and the release of L-carnitine or acylcarnitine are functions of these tissues involved.

L-carnitine biosynthesis
Fig. 1 Graphical representation of L-carnitine biosynthesis by HEACKEL 1990 (see FIG. CHEAPEST MAN et al., 2004, p 18)

So k ö can t ä resembled approximately 15 mg in liver, kidney and brain are formed, about 25% of the t ä corresponds matched demand. Vegetarians the proportion of synthesis is as high as about 90% of daily needs, since these less L carnitine absorb through food (cf. VAZ et al., 2002;. GRIESHEIM, 2007, p 7). Therefore, the former naming Vitamin T was not entirely accurate, because vitamins are substances that must be supplied by the diet because they can not be synthesized in the body. The amount of carnitine, which has been supplied through the food, can be absorbed in two ways.

The first type of transport takes place in the intestine and is active sodium-dependent (1: 1 replacement of L-carnitine against sodium). The active absorption is energy-consuming, and adenosine triphosphate is consumed and is used mainly for small images (<1,000 mg) of L-carnitine instead.
The second, passive mode of transport of L-carnitine in the intestine depends on the concentration of L-carnitine in the intestine. This absorption extends energy-independent and is used mainly for an intake of more than 1,000 mg of L-carnitine instead. From the intestinal L-carnitine either goes directly into the systemic circulation or via the portal vein into the liver where it is either stored or transported further via the blood to the organs, which do not have the ability to synthesize L-carnitine (cf. . GRIESHEIM, 2007, p 4; Rebouche, 2004; LI, 1992, CHEAP MAN et al, 2004, p 29).
The entire human organism has a total stock of about 15-25g L-carnitine. Men have a higher L-carnitine content in the whole body than women. Most of it is stored in the muscles, especially in the heart muscle and in tissues with active lipid metabolism. The amounts to be included in our diet (approximately 30 g), stored in the body itself are (about 15-25g) and can be synthesized daily (15g) are about 30mg over, which are excreted daily in the urine and an average of 7 micromol / L in sweat (cf.. Luppa, 2002). Thus the body has sufficient L-carnitine available, so that no nutritional deficiencies with L-carnitine is to be feared, and no L-carnitine deficiency may occur.

However, the daily excretion amount will vary from person to person and depends on many factors. To achieve a balanced L-carnitine balance, the daily excretion rate must be taken into account in the urine. This is influenced for example by physical activity or protein-rich diets.

L-carnitine in the human body distribution
TABLE 2. L-carnitine distribution in the human body (cf. CHEAP MAN et al, 2004, p 15...)

Overall, can the effects of the organism on the L-carnitine has an impact in three different categories divide (cf. MATERA., 2003):

2 effects on the utilization of carbohydrates and proteins

By changing the ratio of acyl-CoA to CoA, L-carnitine influence carbohydrate metabolism. L-carnitine f ö promotes the metabolism of carbohydrates and enhances the activity ä t of the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism , such as PDH (pyruvate dehydrogenase complex) . By inhibition of PDH lack of oxygen, pyruvate is converted to lactate enhanced, thereby lowering the pH and acidosis may occur. By L-carnitine the activity of PDH CHEAP MAN et al preserved so that pyruvate can be further converted to acyl-CoA and thus acidification may be delayed by (cf., 2004, p 54 f,... Ferrannini et al, 1988).

L-carnitine is also related to the human protein metabolism. Depending on the quantity supplied increases L-carnitine can be lost through the kidneys. Of protein-rich diets or protein supplements, the filtration rate of the kidney may be adversely affected (see FIG. CHEAPEST MAN et al., 2004, p 66). But L-carnitine also has positive effect on the protein metabolism. When power levels of degradation of amino is like acids accelerates for gluconeogenesis. If by L-carnitine more fat etc. are acids used for energy k ö can set gluconeogenesis sp ä ter and the amino ä acids are first like waxed spared. With depleted energy reserves to L-carnitine even the burning of amino acids improved (cf.. BIEBER et al., 1982)

2.1 Protection of cell membrane and intracellular membranes

The function to protect the cell membrane possesses the L-carnitine through the regulation of the relationship between acyl-CoA and CoA. A low acyl-CoA levels, the cell membrane is protected because acyl-CoA is harmful for them. The acyl-CoA is transported into the cytoplasm from the mitochondria by the presence of L-carnitine.

2.2 Neurological effects in the central and peripheral nervous system

In addition to the functions described above is L-carnitine effect on various receptors, for example in the brain and in the blood vessels.

L-carnitine is, as just pointed out, involved in many important processes in the body. L-carnitine has not only influence on the protein and carbohydrate metabolism but also on lipid metabolism .

In the muscles, where L-carnitine is stored for the most part, L-carnitine is centrally involved in the burning of fatty acids. Since the energy sources of our food (carbohydrates, proteins, fats) can not be used directly as energy, they must be converted beforehand into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to serve the body as an energy source. Able to produce adenosine triphosphate fatty acids are used in the mitochondria to produce energy. This process was first observed in 1955 (see FIG. FRITZ, 1955). Existing in muscle L-carnitine bef ö promoted to burning fat like acids as so-called " Carrier " with the help of various enzymes in the mitochondria . In the mitochondria, the fatty acids supplied are for beta-oxidation is used (see FIG. HEINONEN, 1996). These fatty acids are either supplied by the diet or mobilized from the fat stores.

3 L-carnitine and fat burning

Hormonal control of fatty acid metabolism under anabolic conditions
Figure 2a: Schematic of the hormonal control of fatty acid metabolism under anabolic conditions (cf. Luppa, 2004.)

Many manufacturers advertise with the scientifically proven fat burning effects of L-carnitine that is responsible for the transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria since. Though this effect scientifically best ä is taken, no proof is daf ü r before that one obtains ö hte administration of L-carnitine is able to affect fat burning positive.

The fact that L-carnitine is responsible for the transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria, is not sufficient as scientific evidence, such products as " fat burner to call ". To make such a statement, should all factors that are considered to play a role in burning fat.

It is also important even knowing whether an orally supplied amount of carnitine comes ever to where it is needed. Although in the studies was an increase in muscle carnitine levels are reached, however, the L-carnitine can not be there for his alleged fat-reducing effect fulfill (cf.. Vukovich et al., 1994).

It was even concluded that normally enough carnitine is available to support fat loss. However, this is dependent on the physical activity, as well as of the daily diet.

Colombani et al. could not detect any improved fat burning, although in their study, endurance-trained athletes participated, where the fat metabolism works better than untrained.

Further studies of Hawley et al. Were performed to improve athletic performance. They concluded that no improvement of lipid metabolism could be achieved and also no change of the substrates used was conducted (see FIG. HAWLEY et al. 1998). Thus, it was concluded that not the carnitine content of the muscles of the decisive factor f u r fat burning. Added to that is an orally supplemented amount of carnitine does not reach, but only increases the carnitine levels in the blood in the muscle cell. The carnitine present in the blood is then stored without effect when required either in the kidneys, the liver or the brain, or broken down and excreted by the kidneys. Even if a small amount of carnitine would get into the muscles, this could be difficult in theory improve the fat burning because the carnitine metabolism running at full speed, and the amount of carnitine is not the deciding factor for fat burning. The fat burning is in fact influenced by the hormone-sensitive lipase.

Hormonal Komtrolle of fatty acid metabolism under catabolic conditions
Figure 2b: Schematic of the hormonal control of fatty acid metabolism under catabolic conditions (cf. Luppa, 2004.)

Substances which drive the beta oxidation, the hormones adrenaline and glucagon and long chain fatty acids (see FIG. Rubin et al. 2001). In one study, an increase of CO2 in the exhaled by L-carnitine could be achieved thereby concluded that oral supplementation of L-carnitine increased fat burning with runs (cf.. MULLER et al., 2002). This study was the first to found an increased oxidation using a breath gas tests. A 1998 study of 100 obese patients presented an increased reduction of the body mass index (BMI) at a diet in conjunction with L-carnitine supplementation firmly than in the sole diet (cf.. Lurz et al., 1998).

Questionable, however, in this case, if has not been present from the outset, an L-carnitine deficiency , because actually the carnitine is not the decisive factor for fat burning, but it expires hormone-dependent. So could not speak of significant results in terms of improved fat burning one. Thus, no improvement can be listed by oral supplements fat burning in the area.

4 L-carnitine - When does a supplement any sense?

After we have looked at in the first part with the general structure, function, and the supposedly fat-degrading effect of L-carnitine, we now ask us in the second part of the question: What would I ever supplement with L-carnitine? Or rather, what is L-carnitine at all good, if a supplement his main task, according to some manufacturers, can not meet?

The first item on the list would be here the antioxidant effect of L-carnitine . Among antioxidants refers to chemical compounds that make harmful substances such as free radicals or Prooxidanzien harmless. These free radicals are aggressive or Prooxidanzien molecules that destroy cellular structures and other molecules in the body. Various consequences are attributed to free radicals:

Cancers
Alzheimer
Arthritis
Diabetes mellitus
Cardiovascular Diseases
Aging process
Free radicals are called with unpaired outer electron atoms or molecules which cellular functions and enzymes stören.Sie snatch other materials, an electron, which then itself produce toxic compounds that attack the cell membranes. Most substances work on the same principle. Enter an electron to the free radicals to be even to the radical without. This defuse and stabilize the free radicals present.

Differences between different antioxidants exist in the environment in which these substances work. Most antioxidants are among the vitamins, which must be absorbed by the food, because many can not be synthesized in the body thereof. Therefore, these should be supplied to the body through a balanced diet, so that further supplementation is unnecessary.

People who do not take their daily requirement of vitamins and thus of antioxidants to be, but they should think about a targeted nutritional supplement.

4.1 The antioxidant effect of L-carnitine

Free radicals are formed (Source: Wikimedia.org / Heallthvalue CC license)
Free radicals are formed when an oxygen atom loses one valence (outer shell). Such a radical is highly reactive and - as the current state of research -. Involved in a decisive extent on aging antioxidants are considered to be so-called "free radical scavengers" who willingly donate an electron to.. (Source: Wikimedia.org / Heallthvalue , CC license )

L-carnitine can be attributed to an antioxidant effect? This question seems justified, since L-carnitine is composed of a protein link between methionine and lysine and methionine belongs to the active compounds, which have antioxidant effects.

For this reason, various studies have been carried out to clarify this issue. In one of these studies was by GOMEZ-Amores et al. tested the antioxidant capacity of Proprionyl-L-carnitine. In this study, an Antioxidant capacity of Proprionyl-L-carnitine has been demonstrated. Also, further studies were made ​​on this issue came to the conclusion that the active ingredient L-carnitine has antioxidant capacity and compared with other antioxidants, were the L-carnitine same or even better results is (cf.. Gulcin, 2006). DOKMECI even speaks the active ingredient L-carnitine by a naturally occurring antioxidant (cf.. DOKMECI, 2005). SEZEN et al. could also prove an antioxidant effect in their experiments by studying the antioxidant effect of L-carnitine and vitamin E alone and in combination. AROCKIA also RANI et al. are convinced of an antioxidant effect and denote carnitine as a disposer substance of free radicals in the aging process. Taştekin et al. even able to more than an antioxidant effect when used in one of their experiments. They found a protective effect against the dying of neuronal cells. Another experiment that could demonstrate benefits of L-carnitine was of XIE et al. performed. All measured parameters were compared with the control group without L-carnitine treatment positively influenced. A protective, antioxidant effect of L-carnitine was thus confirmed. CALO Even et al. showed a reduction of oxidative stress in human cell cultures in their attempt to Proprionyl-L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine and L-carnitine.

With regard to the question whether an L-carnitine supplement bring advantages for the antioxidant system, this must be answered positively. All these studies were carried out to a clear conclusion that the active ingredient L-carnitine has an antioxidant effect.

4.2 L-carnitine and promotes blood circulation

L-carnitine and blood flow
In animal experiments it has been demonstrated that L-carnitine is able to improve blood circulation. (Source: Pixaby / Geralt ; Public Domain License )

By improving blood circulation more nutrients can be transported into the muscles, making this advertising message in the field building muscle has a very high importance. This advantage is further attributed to many other materials, but in the area of ​​L-carnitine such a reaction in the body could be shown.

In experiments with animal vessels vasodilation by increased L-carnitine concentration could be achieved in the blood (cf.. STUSSI et al., 2005). Yonezawa et al. conducted an experiment by using rats. An Improved circulation or improved blood flow has been demonstrated in this further animal experiments and described (see FIG. Yonezawa et al. 2005). For the area promotes blood circulation, the effect of a L-carnitine supplementation has on the body are thus held to be positive and effective. A carnitine supplementation could cause improved circulation in animal experiments.

But not only in animal experiments this effect could be detected. In clinical trials with humans have such an effect has been demonstrated (cf.. Hiatt, 2004). SHANKAR et al. investigated the effects of L-carnitine on endothelial dysfunctions induced by free fatty acids. In addition, the leg blood flow and leg-vein resistance were measured. An improvement of vascular function was determined by these measurements, among which improved circulation and an improved regeneration of vessels fall. The effects of endothelial dysfunction which were induced by free fatty acids were reduced in this experiment.

So L-carnitine can be effectively used in the field of promoting circulation as a supplement.

4.3 L-carnitine and immune system

(Source: Pixaby / Open clips; Public Domain License)
The immune system protects us from pathogens, such as viruses and Bakerien. L-carnitine has an immunomodulatory effect which can contribute to a strong immune system. (Source: Pixaby / Open clips ; Public Domain License )

Also on the immune system is the active ingredient L-carnitine have its effect. With the immune system is understood the biological defense system by which the human body is able to combat pathogens in the body. For biological defense system also include the skin, mucous membranes and the intestinal flora, where intruders are held before entering the body. The human immune system is also to destroy invading microorganisms capable of, foreign substances, and even faulty body's cells and remove. Small amounts of harmful substances and pathogens have a strengthening and activating the immune system and are partially administered by vaccinations stimulate the immune system.

In an immune system that is 100% functional, there is no danger in such therapy and the immune system is strengthened. situation is different, however, in a non-intact immune system. This disease can cause or worsen. And the active ingredient is L-carnitine have a positive effect on this system.

One of the positive effects of L-carnitine is related to a previously mentioned topic, the antioxidants. Because the active ingredient L-carnitine is capable of capturing free radicals (cf.. AROCKIA RANIA et al., 2001) and to defuse, thereby also the positive effect on the immune system does not fail. Fewer free radicals in the body means less substances in the body that has to respond our immune system. Thus, the immune system can focus on other foreign bodies in the human organism.

In scientific studies, other positive effects were observed on the immune system (see FIG. MANOLI et al. 2004). This glucocorticoids with L-carnitine were comparing Immunomodulatory effects of L-carnitine to prove. L-carnitine had the same positive effects as glucocorticoids, but remained from the side effects of glucocorticoids. This result suggests the assumption that there is a modulator of the immune system from the food at L-carnitine.

Also a positive effect on immune cells (leukocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes) are made, as these cells constantly need L-carnitine for energy and protect the cell membranes. The energy supply must be reinforced with defensive reactions. For this reason, these immune cells also have a 20 times higher than the L-carnitine content of blood plasma. In addition, L-carnitine promotes the repair processes (cf.. Luppa, 2002).

During an infection, it can be in the body to form an L-carnitine deficiency occur (cf.. CHEAPEST MAN et al., 2004, p 80 f). This should be compensated as through the food to provide the nutrients necessary to combat infection support the body perfectly to the fight. In case of insufficient supply of L-carnitine during infection may lead to further actions described negative effects on the body, causing it to weaken further in the fight against infection.

4.4 L-carnitine and regenerative capacity

(Source: Deviantart.com / Leofiger CC license)
In terms of regeneration, Wolverine can not complain. But as it stands at an additional administration of L-carnitine for the amateur athletes? (Source: Deviantart.com / Leofiger , CC license )

L-carnitine is, according to some manufacturers, promote regeneration after intensive muscle exertion. This improved regeneration in conjunction with sports it should come depending on the training condition to performance improvements. But what does the study location on this topic?

Two studies in which no effects were measured on the parameters tested, there may be mentioned (cf.. STUSSI et al., 2005, Colombani et al., 1996). As the effect was found in various studies, a lower or delayed lactate production can be called, what could have possibly affect the acidity of the muscle and thus on the duration of exposure (see FIG. MATERA et al., 2003). In addition, could of MATERA et al. stabilization of CoA to acetyl-CoA and a stabilization of membrane structures are described.

Other results were seen in a study in the area of strength endurance . VOLEK et al. tested a L-carnipure supplement for 3 weeks. In this study, L-carnitine supplementation after a 41-45% fewer cracks in the muscle was measured by a knee bend test compared with the control group employed (see FIG. VOLEK et al., 2002). Positive effects could supplement of 10 grams per day for the period of 10 weeks will be determined by an L-carnitine in an animal experiment with horses. After a training period of five weeks, a percentage increase in type IIa fibers and thus atrophy of type I fibers was measured.

As further effects were a increase in vessel play in the muscles and an improved intramuscular glycogen storage after the training phase , declining compared to the control group. Characterized seems also the power of the horse in the treadmill test performed improved (see FIG. RTVERO et al., 2002). These results can be theoretically on the human body, but are not practical proof for the sake of humanity.

Similarly differently saw the results of the studies listed on topic performance improvement from. First was in an attempt of Karlić et al. trained athletes with a reduction of Ausatmungsquotienten and an increase in VO2 max. be described (cf.. Karlić et al. 2004).

Under VO2 max. refers to the maximum oxygen uptake, a size of the endurance performance is heavily dependent. A crucial determinant of maximum oxygen uptake is the maximum cardiac output. An increased maximum oxygen uptake would ultimately improved endurance performance and thus an improved competitive performance. An increase in VO2 max. was also an attempt by KANTER et al. be found. In addition, could of KANTER et al. a reduction of lactate formation are shown during physical activity. By lactate formation may occur in some sports to premature termination of the performance because the muscle by increased lactate acidifies faster. A reduced lactate formation, as described in the above test could result in a longer power curve during training or competition and thus produce better results.

These two experiments were observed in endurance. By improved circulation and by a higher proportion of blood vessels in the muscles , it can be better supplied with oxygen and nutrients and waste products which can occur in the muscles are removed faster. This can take a very large impact on the duration of athletic performance.

However, the studies that came with the following results were only part of the results of the literature search. In all of the studies already Listed advantages could be shown an L-carnitine supplement. But this was not the case in all studies.

Colombani et al. were regarding this issue to no positive result. The study marathon runners showed no increase in performance after a supplementation of L-carnitine. Similar results were seen in the trial of BROAD et al. Supplementation with 3 grams of L-carnitine had no effect on endurance performance of the participating subjects after 4 weeks Supplementation.t. Also RUBIN et al. found in their experiments no effects on metabolism. With respect to the tested parameters, no significant results are obtained by an L-carnipure supplement.

This was concluded that an L-carnipure supplement no effects on exercise performance of normal healthy men (cf.. RUBIN et al., 2001).

5 Summary and concluding remarks

In studies that could circulation-promoting effect of L-carnitine to be confirmed. This has also been tested in animal studies, as well as in patients with atherosclerosis . Also has positive effects of the drug L-carnitine on the human immune system . Through its antioxidant effect , it prevents the one hand, the presence of free radicals. Secondly, it provides a secure energy supply for the immune cells that fight invaders, foreign body, viruses and bacteria in the body. In addition, L-carnitine acts, like cortisol, immune modulating , which means more positive effects on the immune system.

Disagreement in the literature prevailed in the field of regenerative capacity. Here, no significant results in the literature could be found. In some studies performed were positive, performance enhancing and recovery supporting results are considered. important and interesting in these areas, however, is the delay in lactate production , which enters through L-carnitine and the associated extended performance. It should be noted also still having no daily intake of L-carnitine is necessary for nutrition, according to German society. This could be because the body's own synthesis which can meet daily requirements to about 90%, for example, in vegetarians (see VAZ et al., 2002;. GRIESHEIM, 2007, p 7).

However, supplementation with L-carnitine can an overdose far-reaching consequences of nausea on vomiting up to have diarrhea, being hardly quantitative data regarding overdose to find. Normal amounts which were to be found in the studies that were between one and six grams of L carnitine daily or twice daily over different time periods . According to Hathcock et al. is the risk-free supply of L-carnitine at 2000 mg per day, which was but far exceeded in some of the experiments. Giving the volume of the manufacturers were in the range of 1-2 grams 1-2 times daily, ie where no large differences are found between the studies and the manufacturer's instructions and the recommendation to risk lots of supply.

Theoretical would even occur several positive effects in endurance-trained vegetarians, as these fat burning works better than untrained. In addition, vegetarians cover approximately 90% of its requirements for L-carnitine on the body's own biosynthesis. The amendment would, however, take place over a longer period of time because the body responds according Luppa slowly to changes in L-carnitine intake. This could lead to positive effects in the area of ​​fat loss and performance improvement, these assumptions are hypothetical and should be covered under circumstances in scientific studies.

The dream of a higher fat reduction can be achieved by L-carnitine supplementation not be met , it has been shown that L-carnitine may have some positive effects on the body, which could be interesting for normal leisure and recreational athletes . Of particular interest is an L-carnitine supplement for groups such as vegetarians . Even people diagnosed with L-carnitine deficiency may benefit from a supplement. , but not to improve again to burning fat, but the sufficient supply to ensure and enable the functions of the body where L-Carnitine is involved to improve.

Ultimately, the subject remains L-carnitine supplement a difficult issue, as you could see from the collected studies. For improved fat burning supplementation with L-carnitine is ineffective.

However, is offset by a variety of positive effects, which are interesting for athletes. These effects should be used for at a supplement with L-carnitine at a dose of 2 g twice per day be paid. An addition should be made ​​over a longer period (6-12 weeks) can thus be tested for each individual, whether supplementation with L-carnitine is individually meaningful.

Article Wiki Closed - ACETYL-L-CARNITINE: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?
asked Aug 9, 2014 by Lancomega Level (10,245 points)
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