ACETYL-L-CARNITINE: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?
Acetyl-L-carnitine - the Super-carnitine: effect and application
L-carnitine is true in sports and weight training world as an "amino acid". However, the substance is a combination of two amino acids, the lysine and methionine .
So that it is a peptide, the smallest form of a protein. L-carnitine is a vitamin-like character that makes it play an important role in energy metabolism in the organism.
The peptide transported namely fatty acids within the body cells and is also a receptor molecule. Strictly speaking, the L-carnitine is responsible for the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria, the energy centers of the cells.
This transport is not possible without the substance, so that a deficiency can be compensated by an increased combustion of carbohydrates. But it is definitely a limited capacity of the organism, because less energy can be provided by the absence or inadequacy of burning fat, which is not fully compensated for by the carbohydrate combustion.
But L-carnitine is fortunately not an essential substance. It can be synthesized by the body itself, so that a carnitine deficiency is unlikely. But still the necessities of daily life is primarily about the food, in particular meat products. Red meat is particularly rich in L-carnitine.
Carnitine and its acetylated brother
If I take L-carnitine and it acetyliere, then I get acetyl-L-carnitine. Under acetylation refers to the annealing of an acetyl group to a molecule as herein L-carnitine. Through these biochemical changes, not only the structure of the original molecule changed. It usually also change its biochemical properties.
In practice, the z. B. makes it so noticeable that the acetyl-L-carnitine has a better bioavailability than the L-carnitine, although both substances use the same resorption caused by coadministration of sodium can be increased. Once in the blood, the acetyl L-carnitine may be faster and better in the body cells of the brain, muscles, heart muscles, etc. to penetrate than is the case with L-carnitine.
L-carnitine can always be well received in the cells when simultaneously present a peak concentration of insulin, which is caused by intake of carbohydrates. Acetyl L-carnitine, regardless of the mechanism.
This seems to be one reason why acetyl-L-carnitine is capable of relatively unproblematic to cross the blood-brain barrier. A paper from the year 2009 (acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) Prevents hypobaric hypoxia-induced spatial memory impairment through extracellular related kinase-mediated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 phosphorylation ) showed that the substance in the brain a considerable anti- has -oxidative effectiveness and lack of oxygen, the formation of free radicals decreases.
In a work with rats ( CARNITINE ESTERS PREVENT OXIDATIVE STRESS DAMAGE AND ENERGY DEPLETION FOLLOWING TRANSIENT forebrain ischaemia IN THE RAT HIPPOCAMPUS ) also showed the compound has strong anti-oxidant effects and Prevented by ischemia-induced nerve damage and loss of energy in the forebrain of the animals.
The authors suggest at the end of their work, that these and similar substances are potentially useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
A publication from the year 2010 ( acetyl-l-carnitine ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction Following contusion spinal cord injury ) showed positive effects on spinal injuries from bruises. The administration of acetyl L-carnitine for 15 minutes and 6 hours after the injury, which was continued once a day for a period of 7 days was associated with a significant protection of the gray matter (lat. Gray matter), respectively. A paper from the year 2006 ( Delayed acetyl-l-carnitine administration and its effect on sensory neuronal rescue after peripheral nerve injury ) evaluated acetyl-L-carnitine as a highly protective in connection with damage to the central nervous system, so that open up clinical applications here .
Since the step is not far away, also on the use of degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease think. A paper from the year 2003 ( Bioenergetic Approaches for neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease ) suspected as the main cause of Parkinson's disease an excessive release of free radicals in the mitochondria of brain cells. In animal experiments showed in this context a number of natural substances as therapeutically useful such. B. creatine, ubiquinone-10, ginkgo biloba, nicotinamide (an amide of vitamin B3) and acetyl-L-carnitine.
Acetyl-L-carnitine also appears to have a favorable influence on particularly interesting parameters: type 2 diabetes and hypertension. A relevant paper from the year 2009 ( Amelio rating Hypertension and Insulin Resistance in Subjects at Increased Cardiovascular Risk - Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine Therapy ) showed that a relatively high-dose therapy with acetyl-L-carnitine (two 1 gram per day ) could affect hypertension low.
The same was true for insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. In addition, the authors of the substance attested that she was very well tolerated despite the high dosage of all patients. This gives the image a cardioprotective active substance with a commitment to clinical use.
Similar observations for type 2 diabetes have also been described from L-Carnitine (L-Carnitine Improves Glucose Disposal in Type 2 Diabetic Patients ). In this work it was found that an infusion of L-carnitine resulted in a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity of cells in insulin-resistant type 2 diabetic patients. At the same time there was a significant reduction of lactate in the plasma, which is due to the activation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase, whose activity is suppressed during the insulin resistance.
Mother Nature has given us a further substance to the hand with which we are able to affect a number of body functions at the biochemical level low. This time counts even the brain and the central nervous system to the direct target organs.
Again, the finding of the scientists that the significant efficacy of acetyl-L-carnitine is not accompanied by correspondingly high rates of side effects.
On the contrary, an integral part of a natural effect is the virtual absence of adverse effects.