ACETYL-L-CARNITINE: Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Warnings?
Esters of acetyl L-carnitine, in addition to the biochemical similarity with the amino acid carnitine also have similar functions in the metabolism - in particular in the transformation of food into energy. As a dietary supplement acetyl-L-carnitine is effective in forms of dementia, and peripheral neuropathies.
Side effects, contraindications
With acetyl L-carnitine is an amino acid ester of L-carnitine which in turn can be synthesized from the construction materials of the body lysine and methionine. Acetyl-L-carnitine itself is formed by a transferase enzyme in liver, kidney and brain of man. With regard to the biological effects of acetyl L-carnitine, increases fatty acid oxidation in the context of the uptake of acetyl-CoA in the mitochondrial - the "plants" of the cell. In addition, the production of acetylcholine stimulated and supports the synthesis of proteins and cell membrane components.
Because of this basal biochemical effects act L-carnitine and its esters as a kind of fuel for energy production in the cells. Therefore, a deficiency of these important substances in all cells of the body can be felt, although particularly stressed tissues (muscles, myocardium, brain, etc.) have a higher demand and, therefore, are in principle susceptible to interference.
Naturally comes acetyl-L-carnitine mainly found in the brain, but also in other tissues. In addition, the substance is available as a dietary supplement. Although there should be no actual deficiency of acetyl-L-carnitine in the strict sense, since the ester is indeed synthesized by the body itself, decrease with increasing age, the levels of acetyl-L-carnitine in tissues. Medical studies have shown that the amino acid at dementias (eg Alzheimer's disease z.), Age depression, HIV infection, diabetic neuropathy, cerebral circulatory disorders and in alcohol-induced cognitive deficits can be successfully used.
The exact mechanisms of action of acetyl L-carnitine could not yet be decoded. According to recent studies, the ester acts as a parasympathomimetic due to the structural similarities with acetylcholine. In this sense, acetyl L-carnitine acts as a neurotransmitter and is likely to stimulate cholinergic thus neuronal metabolism in the mitochondria.
From research groups these cholinergic effects of acetyl-L-carnitine on the blockade of postsynaptic Inhibitionspotenziale were returned. Other authors reported that this action is based upon a direct stimulation of the synapses. Of much greater importance, however, is likely to be the fact that acetyl-L-carnitine can stabilize the fluidity of the cell membrane via a regulation of endogenous sphingomyelin level, which is likely related to an increase in cellular energy metabolism in the mitochondria.
In addition, acetyl-L-carnitine but also a substrate reservoir for cellular energy production. This might be the key to ensuring that means of sufficient intracellular levels of acetyl-L-carnitine excessive neuronal death can be prevented. In addition, could also be shown that acetyl-L-carnitine is likely to reinforce the effectiveness of certain of neural growth factors in different brain regions.
Total substitution of acetyl L-carnitine has in the listed in the following diseases and conditions found to be positive:
Alzheimer's dementia: Numerous clinical studies have confirmed that acetyl-L-carnitine cognitive performance positively affected in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type. Although long-term results so far are pending, should a longer-term intake lead to an increase in long-term memory performance.
Depression: Patients with major depression may, by supplementing it with
come acetyl-L-carnitine to a change in the circadian rhythm of glucocorticoid secretion with an increase of Gesamtkortisol mirror. The additional supply of acetyl L-carnitine may therefore support the treatment of depression symptoms.
Cerebrovascular Disorders: With regard to cerebral ischemia and reperfusion are positive results before about the use of acetyl-L-carnitine. It was shown in studies that using acetyl-L-carnitine neurological sequelae following could be reduced to such events.
Cardiovascular disorders: Like L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine increases the transport of fatty acids for ATP production in the mitochondria of skeletal muscle and myocardium and thus acts protectively against damage by free radicals.
Diabetic consequential damages: In diabetic patients were relieved by intravenous supplementation of acetyl-L-carnitine neuropathic pain and improves peripheral nerve function. The substance is therefore likely to have positive effects on metabolic and functional disturbances in diabetic polyneuropathy.
Alcohol abuse: should Several studies have indicated both L-carnitine and
acetyl-L-carnitine have effects on the hepatic alcohol metabolism, the ester is likely the alcohol oxidation by a multiple delay stronger. Acetyl-L-carnitine could therefore be potentially useful in the treatment of cognitive disorders in alcoholics.
One capsule contains 500 mg of acetyl-L-carnitine in pharmaceutical grade.
Other Ingredients: Maltodextrin, magnesium stearate, Sylox, gelatin
Take 2 capsules 3 times daily with meals with plenty of fluid - Normally 1.
SIDE EFFECTS, CONTRAINDICATIONS
The additional intake of acetyl-L-carnitine is effective and safe in the recommended dosage ranges. Even with long-term use over a year, no significant side effects were observed. The most common adverse reactions increased drive, nausea and vomiting have been reported. Pregnant or lactating women or people who are under constant medical care should consult a doctor before taking. Acetyl-L-carnitine is not suitable for dialysis patients.
It is generally recommended to consult a specialist before taking any dietary supplements. This is especially true in the presence of chronic diseases and with regular use of medication. Occur while taking complaints, you should consult a doctor and inform him of the intake. Keep out of reach of children in a cool, dry place.
Carnitine is a vitamin-like substance ( vitamins ), the body with the assistance of the human (and animal) vitamin C , B6, B12, niacin, folic acid, iron, and various enzymes can be synthesized. If any one of these substances are not sufficiently available, the synthesis may be disturbed. L - carnitine but also from food in the form of two essential amino acids methionine and lysine was added. Both amino acid protein form a common connection, the so-called L-carnitine.
The name of this protein compound, L - Carnitine, derived from Latin and is from the word derived carnis (= Latin meat.). This naming is based on the fact that methionine and lysine is predominantly derived from fleshly food. First discovered Russian researchers at the beginning of the 20th century in the muscle meat of mammals, a substance that is necessary for muscle function. This substance they named derived from Latin (see above): CARNITIN.
About 50 years later, the researchers found Fraenkel out in the study of mealworms that L - carnitine may have vital functions. For this reason it was felt that it had to be this substance is a vitamin. By now we know, however, that L - carnitine is not among the vitamins, but is considered as vitamin-like nutrient (cf. EU -. Guidelines).
L - carnitine is similar to vitamins in the event of a surplus, possibly with the occurrence of side effects described below, excreted from the body.
As the name suggests, carnitine is especially for eating:
Meat , particularly lamb and pork , but also
Fish taken. Also in
Vegetables, fruit - and
Dairy products is L- carnitine, but to a much lesser extent .
An adult takes as part of his daily diet on average between 100 and 300 milligrams (mg) of L-carnitine. On days in which the Mesch consumed much meat, the content can to about 1 g increase.
A balanced diet therefore seems sensible not last.
Promised / advertised effect
Carnitine is to write a muscle growth-promoting property. It is claimed - particularly from the manufacturers of such supplements - that the muscles by increasing the carnitine - value is better supplied with oxygen and in particular by building muscle to fat reduction contributes in the body.
Actual / demonstrable effect
Scientifically proven is currently that the endogenous carnitine significantly to the generation of energy from fatty acids is involved. The claim that by means of increased fat metabolism in particular accelerates muscle growth and fat cells are reduced faster, can not be maintained.
What functions does L-carnitine in the body?
There are two different forms of carnitine. We distinguish the L - carnitine , which has important functions as a vitamin-like nutrient in the body that are still to be further explained below, the so-called D - carnitine , a harmful stereoisomer of L - carnitine. In the case of a supplement dose, ie a substance chemically manufactured, produced a mixture of the two forms.
L - Carnitine plays an important role in fat metabolism.
, the body cells themselves have called mitochondria, which can be - as - for the purpose of understanding energy power plants can imagine the cells. For this energy power plants work properly, they need fatty acids. These fatty acids are not present in the mitochondria, but must first go there to be transported. This transportation / function takes the L - carnitine. L - carnitine attaches itself to the fatty acids and discharged - especially long-chain fatty acids, which could not pass through the cell wall of mitochondria alone - in the mitochondria inside. L - carnitine is present in some way in every body cell.
There is a lack of L - carnitine before, less fatty acids be transported into the mitochondria, so that less fat can be converted to energy.
In addition to this "transport function" and the key function within the fat burning addition to L involved - carnitine in many biochemical processes in the organism either directly or indirectly. For example, a medically prescribed dose of L - bring about an improvement in blood lipid levels and thus have a favorable effect on existing heart disease carnitine.
Scientific proof is the assumption that L - carnitine in conjunction with dieting and exercise can cause a reduction in body weight.
Depending on the individual performance synthesis can be a supplement gift be induced. This is, for example, in premature infants is the case, in addition to the lack of synthesis also of the low carnitine - content of milk are affected.
Studies show, moreover, that pregnant and endurance athletes often (too) low l - carnitine - have content.
In adults, a carnitine deficiency usually occurs due to defects of synthesis. This is, for example, in diseases of the kidney, of the case, but also in Hämodyalise.
-> Back to the main topic L-carnitine
An overdose can cause nausea , vomiting and diarrhea result. It is already at a level of 3 to 4 grams of a so-called "Overdose" from.
since L - carnitine is used among other things as an engine for the production of sweat, the body loses especially in an excessive dosage too much water, by drinking must be balanced.
IMPORTANT: Excessive sweating does not mean that fat cells are burned !!!
In cases where the body unnatural carnitine - forms, such as D - carnitine , or synthetic mixtures of D-and L-carnitine are supplied, can forms of muscular weakness occur.
Please refer to the values specified by the manufacturer. Overdosing should be avoided if possible. A daily dose should not exceed 2 g, which 1-2 g should be taken throughout the day. Therapy should not exceed a period of 6 to 8 weeks.
Since the body L - carnitine synthesized and consequently also for the nutrients produced specifically within the fat burning is used, it is in this regard that in the context of L - carnitine - increase can be stimulated and increased the fat burning. This assumption is, however, not yet assigned: Neither an increase in performance in the context of competitive sports, yet the increased Körperfettvebrennung could be detected.
Since carnitine is excreted in excess, the carnitine changes - concentration does not have the normal amount of time in the muscles. Thus, no increase in performance and increased fat burning are possible. A supply of healthy people does not lead to performance improvements in endurance sports still to body fat reduction.
The only medical indication for the administration of L-carnitine is the acquired proven L-carnitine deficiency .
L-carnitine and acetyl L-carnitine (ALC) - Everything you need to know to
What is L-carnitine?
Effect of L-carnitine
L-Carnitine and Pregnancy
L-carnitine during sports
decrease with L-carnitine
Studies of L-carnitine L-carnitine
Lack L-carnitine application
Side effects of L-carnitine
1 What is L-carnitine, which is acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC)?
- what it is
especially among athletes and dieters sparked L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine (also called "ALC" abbreviated) is always regular discussions.
This is hardly surprising, because true the statement of supplement manufacturer, L-carnitine would inject fatty acids in the internal cells of the muscles,
it would be for a probably a highly coveted performance enhancer and for the latter without question a potent weight loss aid ...!
was offset by contradictory statements that focus on the effect of L-carnitine more than in question. , we want to bring light into the darkness and in addition to the two aspects of losing weight and performance in sport with L-carnitine, the sake of completeness, also the health aspects of this extremely remarkable, natural substance a closer take magnifying glass to take on the L-Carnitine not less successful positive influence can!
L-carnitine from bio-chemical point of view
from bio-chemical point of view it is the L-carnitine is a natural body chemical consisting of the two amino acids lysine and methionine.
In the liver L-carnitine synthesized from these two amino acids, arrives in port into the bloodstream and finally to the target organs.
Chemical formula for L-carnitine is C7H15NO3, L-carnitine contributes yet the lesser-known names trimethyl-hydroxybutyrobetain,
3-carboxy-2-hydroxypropyl, N, N, N-trimethylammonium, but the stem rather the specialized vocabulary of the chemist . L-carnitine from functional point of view L-carnitine - where does it come from and what does it in the body? far more interesting and far less abstract than the chemical relationships are likely to be for most readers, the origin and the function of L-carnitine in our organism. L-carnitine is a vitamin-like, completely natural substance that plays a key role in lipid metabolism. within this function transports L-carnitine , the fatty acids from the blood into the muscle cells. In the mitochondria, the fatty acids are burned in the port, thereby releasing energy.
So carnitine releases energy for our entire organism-free and provides the way for body fat regulation and reduction in obese people. Sooner or as "vitamin" refers to one speaks today at L-carnitine of "vitamin-like" substance (a so called "vitaminoid"), what is due to the fact that it was believed earlier that the body can not produce L-carnitine itself. L-carnitine is a vitamin-like substance that appears on the dual way in the body. On the one hand it is the organism to a certain degree even produced, on the other hand fed on the Nahrungsweg the body.
Own-account production of L-carnitine by the body is of a sufficient intake of vitamins C and B6, as well as niacin and iron dependent, something that in this day and age because of the industrialization of food and other negative mechanisms more and more difficult. , the most biologically active form of L-carnitine in this case represents the acetyl-L-carnitine. It is very important to know that 50% of the total fat energy that we take, in the form of sg long-chain fatty acids happens - without L-carnitine but we can not burn long chain fatty acids! What is the difference of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) and L-carnitine? acetyl-L-carnitine (abbreviated: "ALC") is due to the acetyl-component more easily absorbed and also the efficiency is significantly higher than that of the other L-carnitine forms. absorption of acetyl L-carnitine in the intestine Assuming acetyl L-carnitine, this dissolves, and next in the stomach the small intestine passed. the small intestine, it passes through the lipophilic membranes of the intestinal wall and thereby are a part of its molecules from acetate.
The acetyl component ensures that the acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is more easily absorbed, in addition to the higher effectiveness is this essentially the difference for "ordinary" L-carnitine is. L-carnitine passes through the liver after shooting in small intestine, L-carnitine is passed with the blood in the liver. At this point, acetyl-L-carnitine has demonstrated that it is able to increase the transport activity of L-carnitine, while decreases steadily normally with aging these transportability. This is particularly important because, as already described, L-carnitine is a prerequisite for that long-chain fatty acids can be introduced into the mitochondria where it is burnt. Especially the heart muscle is dependent on this important mechanism to provide the necessary for his work energy to generate. From here, the L-carnitine is passed through the blood to the organs and tissues, where it takes its multiple radio ions. With appropriate cautions of L-carnitine which can heart attacks be prevented proven. Via the "L-carnitine-occurrence "You learn details about how L-carnitine is produced in our bodies and what foods and in what concentrations of L-carnitine